Abé, Danièle (1994) Implementing a support
system for language learning in a resource centre on an industrial site. In
Edith Esch, ed. Self-Access and the Adult
Language Learner, 108-116.
Abé describes and assesses the setting up of an open-learning centre with a variety of self-study materials for learning English in a big French company; learning is supported by counselling sessions, individual simulations, and discussions with a native speaker.
Abé, Danièle, C. Henner-Stanchina, O.
Régent, Henri Holec, Philip Riley & M. Sicre (1985) Aspects of autonomous
learning. In Philip Riley, ed. Discourse
and Learning, 248-282. In series Applied
Linguistics and Language Study.
Four separately-authored accounts involving an open learning centre at a French university:
"Learning oral expression autonomously": self-instruction materials for spoken English.
"Evaluation in an autonomous learning scheme": criteria and procedures for assessing strategy-use and progress.
"Taking learners' needs into account in self-directed learning": needs analysis, objective-setting and self-assessment criteria and procedures, plus learner training.
"An experiment in self-directed group learning": group-based self-instruction with the Université du troisième âge (older learners).
Aston, Guy (1993) The learner's contribution to the self-access centre. ELT Journal 47/3: 219-227.
A description of a project whereby learners produced instructions and suggestions on materials use (for peers) and feedback (for centre staff).
Barley, Anthony (1990) The BBC and modern language broadcasts. Language Learning Journal 1/Spring: 75-79.
An overview of the BBC's radio and TV broadcast policy, both to support school language classes and for adult independent learning.
Beaton, Alan, Michael Gruneberg & Nick Ellis (1995) Retention of foreign vocabulary learned using the keyword method: a ten-year follow-up. Second Language Research 11/2: 112-120.
A study of vocabulary retention by a native English learner 10 years after using Linkword Italian (a teach-yourself package which uses keyword-imagery strategies to learn vocabulary).
Beeching, Kate (1996) Evaluating a
self-study system. In Elspeth Broady and Marie-Madeleine Kenning, eds: Promoting Learner Autonomy in University
Language Teaching, 81-103.
Describes a programme where
Benson, Phil (1994)
Self-access systems as information systems: questions of ideology and control.
In David Gardner and Lindsay Miller, eds: Directions in Self-Access Language
An analysis, within a learner-autonomy framework, of key ideological issues concerning the self-access centre, with a focus on the tension between external control (by writers of materials, study guides, etc.) and learner control of learning processes/structures.
Benson, Phil (1996) Self-access and collaborative
learning. Self-Access Language Learning: The Newsletter of the
A discussion of how self-access centres can enable collaborative learning for learner empowerment.
Phil (2001) Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning. In
series Applied Linguistics in Action.
A comprehensive overview of theory, practice and research priorities in autonomous foreign-language learning within and beyond the classroom. Chapter 8, on "resource-based approaches" (open learning centres, teach-yourself packages and distance learning), relates most directly to self-instruction per se.
Benson, Phil & Peter Voller (1997)
Introduction: autonomy and independence in language learning. In Phil Benson
and Peter Voller, eds: Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning,
A critical overview of learner autonomy in language learning, with links to educational philosophy, the growth of self-access centres, and the politics of language education.
Brockett, Ralph G. & Roger Hiemstra
(1985) Bridging the theory-practice gap in self-directed learning. In Stephen
Brookfield, ed. Self-Directed Learning:
From Theory to Practice, 31-40. In series New Directions for Continuing Education, Vol. 25.
A non-foreign-language-specific look at key principles of self-directed (i.e. self-instructed) learning and the role of the learning advisor/facilitator. The relationship between learning mode and learner type / learning setting is also discussed.
Brockett, Ralph G. & Roger Hiemstra
(1991) Self-Direction in Adult Learning.
A detailed, non-foreign-language-specific overview of principles, research and practice in adult self-directed (i.e. self-instructed) learning, both within and outside an institutional framework. The book also discusses open learning centres, the role of the "learning facilitator" (advisor), and self-directed learning from an international/intercultural perspective.
An account and evaluation of various support services
(in-house and outreach) offered by a
A detailed (though non-foreign-language-specific) overview of the principles of adult education. Among the topics relevant to self-instruction are literature reviews and discussions on: informal self-directed learning, objective-setting, self-directed learning programs in institutional settings, and problems with implementing self-directed learning.
Candy, Philip (1988) On
the attainment of subject-matter autonomy. In David Boud, ed. Developing Student Autonomy in Learning,
2nd edition, 59-76.
A non-foreign-language-specific discussion about the gaining of subject knowledge, including the relationship between dependence and independence in learning. "Self-teaching" projects are briefly discussed.
Carson, Joan G. & Ana Longhini (2002) Focusing on learning styles and strategies: a diary study in an immersion setting. Language Learning 52/2: 401-438.
Cleary, Ritva-Liisa & Lucila Makin (1994) A unique
resource-based language learning system. In Edith Esch, ed. Self-Access and
the Adult Language Learner, 73-80.
Consumer's Association (1990) Learning a language. Which?, September 1990: 518-521.
A brief learner guide which first compares the pros and cons of self-study, distance learning, and various taught-course types. It then assesses a range of published cassette-based teach-yourself packages (summarising Roberts, 1995).
(1996) Towards an effective self-access language centre: a report for the
English Language Institute,
Characteristics of successful self-access centres,
based on a survey of six European and
De Graaff, Rick (1997) The Experanto experiment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19: 249-276.
A report on a computer-controlled self-study course for an artificial language, focusing on the role of explicit vs. implicit grammar instruction.
Detaramani, Champa R. & Irene Shuk Im Chan (1996) Learners'
Attitudes and Motivation towards the Self-Access Mode of Language Learning.
In series Research Monographs, Vol. 8.
A report on a questionnaire and
interview survey of English learners at a
Dickinson, Leslie (1979) Self-instruction in commonly-taught languages. System 7/3: 181-186.
A discussion of reasons for "broad" self-instruction, and the roles of teacher and learner in self-instruction.
Dickinson, Leslie (1987) Self-Instruction in Language Learning.
A detailed guide to the theory and practice of "broad" self-instruction in foreign languages, with the main focus on supported self-instruction in an institutional context. Among the topics covered are: reasons for self-instruction, self-instruction systems in practice, materials design, supporting the learner, and setting up an open-learning system/centre.
Dickinson, Leslie (1992) Learner Training for Language Learning.
In series Learner Autonomy Vol. 2.
A teacher's/advisor's guide to learner training, with a focus on enabling the autonomous and (broad) self-instructed learning of foreign-languages.
Doyle, T. & Paul Meara
(1991) Lingo! How to learn a language.
A practical learner's handbook on language learning in and out of class, with a focus on developing confidence and independent language-learning strategies. The authors also give advice on learning specific languages, and questionnaires on learning style, aptitude, situational factors, etc.
Dunn, Opal (1994) Distance
learning for young learners: an innovative and challenging approach. In Keith
Richards and Peter Roe, eds: Distance
Learning in ELT, 138-144, in series Review
of English Language Teaching, Vol. 3, No. 2.
A brief report on using a cassette-based teach-yourself package for young learners' EFL self-study, with parent help.
Esch, Edith (1994) Learner support:
interacting with learners. In Edith Esch, ed. Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner, 50-53.
Good-practice suggestions for language-learning advisors at open-learning centres.
Esch, Edith (1997) Learner training
for autonomous language learning. In Phil Benson and Peter Voller, eds: Autonomy
and Independence in Language Learning, 164-175.
Esch describes a weekly learner-training workshop for
intermediate learners of French at a
Felix, Uschi (1998) Virtual Language Learning: Finding the Gems Amongst the Pebbles. With accompanying web-hyperlinked CD-ROM version. Melbourne: Language Australia.
An annotated compendium of web-based resources for foreign language learning, and a discussion of technical issues involved in using them.
Fernández Toro, María & Francis R. Jones (1996) Going solo: learners' experiences of self-instruction and self-instruction training. In Elspeth Broady and Marie-Madeleine Kenning, eds: Promoting Learner Autonomy in University Language Teaching, 185-214. London: CILT.
The authors describe two studies into self-instruction:
An interview study (summarising
Jones, 1996a) of 70
report on a self-instruction learner-training module linked to Spanish-language
provision for engineering students at a
Fernández Toro, María & Francis R. Jones (2001) DIY Techniques for Language Learners. London: CILT.
A practical learner's handbook for self-instruction, containing (inter alia): overviews and questionnaires on self-instruction learning style, aptitude and experience; guidance on resource-use and general learning "techniques" (i.e. strategies); and autonomous activities for various language skills and areas.
Firth, Matthew & John Gittings (1998) Speaking in tongues. The Guardian, June 18th: 15.
A review of three CD-ROM teach-yourself courses, which also identifies the faults and advantages of CALL-based self-study.
Fitzgerald, Sue (1998) Multimedia provision in a self-access centre. In Bruce Morrison, ed. Experiments and Evaluation in Self-Access Language Learning. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Association for Self-Access Learning and Development.
Recommendations on policy, hardware/software selection criteria and pedagogical considerations for multimedia use in self-access centres.
Gannon, Cathy (1997) The self-access facility: why learners use it. In Independent Learning: Practice and Theory, 55-58. In series Language Access to Medicine, Vol. 3. Warsaw: Akademia Medyczna.
A survey report analysing which language skills learners prioritise in a university open learning centre.
Gardner, David (1996) Self-assessment for self-access learners. TESOL Journal 5/3: 18-23.
A brief history and general overview of key issues in learner autonomy, with some reference to self-access centres.
Hayet, M-C (1990-1991) At-home foreign-language courses and electronic linguistic tools. Language International 2/5: 27-30; 2/6: 9-12; 3/6: 9-15.
A critical three-part analysis of published self-study packages, plus a discussion of networked "virtual classrooms" (computer resource banks, peer e-mailing, access to teacher/advisor input) as a potential solution to problems identified with classic self-study.
Heafford, Michael (1995) Getting going in Greek: better some than all. Language Learning Journal 12/September: 66-70.
A review of published teach-yourself packages for English native speakers learning Modern Greek, with general implications for teach-yourself package design.
Hill, Brian (1982) Learning alone: some implications for course design. In Marion Geddes and Gill Sturtridge, eds: Individualisation, 71-75. Modern English Publications: place unknown.
Hill reports surveys of TV/radio-based foreign-language self-instruction (see Rybak, 1983 for details) showing learners' profiles, reasons for learning, drop-out, etc. After a discussion of the role of materials banks vs. directed (non-autonomous) learning packages, he gives detailed practical advice for self-study materials writers.
Hill, Brian (1994) State of the art article: self-managed learning. Language Teaching 27: 213-223.
Overview of recent research and theory in autonomy/self-instruction, including data about self-access centres and broadcast/CALL/multimedia/e-mail/satellite learning.
Holec, Henri (1979) Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
An overview of autonomous foreign-language language learning. After a grounding in theory, Holec gives advice on how the institution/advisor/teacher can support and train autonomous/self-instructed learning, and describes some schemes in operation at the time of writing.
Holec, Henri (1988) General presentation. Prospects / Présentation générale. Perspectives. In Henri Holec, ed. Autonomy and Self-Directed Learning: Present Fields of Application / Autonomie et apprentissage autodirigé: terrains d'application actuels, 5-18. Strasbourg: Council for Cultural Co-operation / Conseil de la coopération culturelle.
A programme statement on autonomous foreign-language language learning. After a grounding in theory, Holec examines how autonomy can be supported, inter alia, in "resource centres" (open learning centres with materials and advisors).
Holec, Henri (1996a) Self-directed learning: an alternative form of training. In Strategies in Language Learning and Use, 77-127. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
After a grounding in theory, Holec discusses training for foreign-language self-direction (autonomous learning) and resources for the self-directed learner, and gives guidelines for open learning centres.
Holec, Henri (1996b) Self-directed learning: an alternative form of training. Language Teaching 29: 89-93.
An abstracted version of Holec (1996a).
Hurd, Stella (1994) The Language Learning Centre at the University of Central Lancashire: a case study. In Edith Esch, ed. Self-Access and the Adult Language Learner, 126-134. London: CILT.
A description of issues involved in setting up a self-access centre, plus staff and student evaluations of the innovation process.
Ife, Anne (2000) Language learning and residence abroad: how self-directed are students? Language Learning Journal 22/Winter: 30-37.
A report on a profile study of language learning undertaken by 135 UK modern-languages students on their "year abroad" at European universities, with an accent on the "self-help strategies" used.
Jones, Francis R. (1993) Beyond the fringe: a framework for assessing teach-yourself materials for ab initio English-speaking learners. System 21/4: 453-469.
A detailed checklist of the features of teach-yourself packages, followed by two brief research reports:
A survey of 40 packages for English-speaking adults learning various European and non-European languages.
A case-study of two Hungarian coursebooks in learning use by the author.
Jones, Francis R. (1994) The lone language learner: a diary study. System 22/4: 441-454.
A case-study of the author's self-instruction of Hungarian over 11 months, involving a progression from package-led to fully-autonomous learning.
Jones, Francis R. (1995a) Learner, teach thyself! Self-directed language learning. Greta 3/2: 19-23.
An overview of self-instruction strategies.
Jones, Francis R. (1995b) Learning an alien lexicon: a single-subject case study. Second Language Research 11/2: 95-111.
A case-study of the author's self-instruction of Hungarian over 11 months, focusing on vocabulary acquisition.
Jones, Francis R. (1996a) Going it alone: self-instruction in adult foreign language learning. PhD thesis, Department of Education, Newcastle University.
Contains a Literature Review of self-instruction and second-language acquisition, and reports on:
A teach-yourself package checklist and its applications.
A case-study of the author's self-instruction of Hungarian over 11 months.
An interview study of 70
The Conclusion gives implications for learning theory, materials designers, learners, open learning centres and learner trainers.
Jones, Francis R. (1996b) Teach yourself languages: the lone language learner. Independence 18: 16-19.
A summary of research findings (abstracted from Jones, 1996a) regarding achievement, perceptions and strategies, with advice to the learner and the self-instruction materials designer.
Jones, Francis R. (1997) The good self-instructed learner. In Independent Learning: Practice and Theory, 74-89. In series Language Access to Medicine, Vol. 3. Warsaw: Akademia Medyczna.
A description of key factors affecting self-instruction, based on an interview study of 70 UK learners with self-instructed experience in various languages (see Jones, 1996a, for details).
Jones, Francis R. (1998a) Self-instruction and success: a learner-profile study. Applied Linguistics 19/3: 378-406.
A report on an interview study of 70 UK learners with self-instructed experience in various languages. The author uses multivariate statistics to compare achievement in self-instruction and classwork, and to identify the most effective combination of the two methods in achievement terms.
Jones, Francis R. (1998b) Teach-yourself package design: learning from experience. In Anne Stevens, ed. Report of the Proceedings of the Conference on Supporting Distance Learning in Languages. Milton Keynes: Open University Centre for Modern Languages.
A checklist of design recommendations for teach-yourself packages.
Jones, Francis (1998c) Gender and second-language self-instruction. In Jane Sunderland, ed. Occasional Reports, Centre for Research in Language Education, 21-44. Vol. 8. Lancaster University.
A report examining whether gender is a significant factor in foreign-language self-instruction, based on multivariate analysis of interviews with 70 UK adult learners with self-instruction experience of various languages.
Kelly, Rena (1996) Language counselling for learner autonomy: the skilled helper in self-access language learning. In Richard Pemberton, Edward S. L. Li, Winnie W. F. Or and Herbert D. Pierson, eds: Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning, 93-113. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
An analysis, within a counselling framework, of language advising on self-instructed language-learning projects, with reference to a Singapore polytechnic's open learning centre.
Kjisik, Felicity & Joan Norlund (1996) Integrating autonomous learning into higher education: a Helsinki University Language Centre project. Independence 18: 40-43.
A description and evaluation of compulsory guided self-instruction modules for foreign language learning at Helsinki University.
Krashen, Stephen D. (1996) The case for narrow listening. System 24/1: 97-100.
Describes an autonomous-learning technique for listening (collecting and listening to authentic recordings by different speakers on the same topic).
Lee, Joyce &
Elza Tsang (1997) Lessons to be learnt from a self-learning English Programme. Self-Access
Language Learning: The Newsletter of the Hong Kong Association for Self-Access
Learning and Development. Available at http://www.engl.polyu.edu.hk/HASALD/sall97.htm, accessed
A report on an independent English-language improvement programme at Hong Kong self-access centre, with counsellor support.
Lee, Winnie (1996) The role of materials in the development of autonomous learning. In Richard Pemberton, Edward S. L. Li, Winnie W. F. Or and Herbert D. Pierson, eds: Taking Control: Autonomy in Language Learning, 167-184. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
A report on a study of 50 Hong Kong university students, contrasting experiences of using authentic materials vs. textbooks for learning English in an open learning centre. Recommendations are made for the use of authentic materials in open learning centres.
Leeke, Philip & Philip Shaw (2000) Learners' independent records of vocabulary. System 28/2: 271-289.
A survey study of how self-instructed/informal learners of EAP at a UK university make and use vocabulary wordlists.
Little, David (1988) Autonomy and self-directed learning: an Irish experiment. In Henri Holec, ed. Autonomy and Self-Directed Learning: Present Fields of Application / Autonomie et apprentissage autodirigé: terrains d'application actuels, 77-83. Strasbourg: Council for Cultural Co-operation / Conseil de la coopération culturelle.
A description and evaluation of a "self-directed" (self-study) scheme, with counsellor support, for optional learning of German by engineering students at an Irish university's open learning centre. Conclusions focus on counselling and support issues.
Little, David (1997) Responding authentically to authentic texts: a problem for self-access learning? In Phil Benson and Peter Voller, eds: Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning, 225-236. London: Longman.
A discussion of the uses of authentic texts in language learning, with particular reference to the self-access centre.
Littlejohn, Andrew (1997) Self-access work and curriculum ideologies. In Phil Benson and Peter Voller, eds: Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning, 181-191. London: Longman.
A critique of how closed-ended self-access materials can promote social control and learner passivity rather than autonomy, followed by recommendations for self-access task/feedback design and centre management.
Jeanette & Y. Chevalier (1997) Autonomy and self instruction in language
learning: the current situation in European institutions of Higher Education.
Web page, on site New Technologies and Language Learning. Available at http://odur.let.rug.nl/projects/tnp-ntll/reports.htm,
A survey of practice and attitudes towards autonomy/self-instruction in European university self-access centres.
Lockwood, Fred (1992) Activities in Self-Instructional Texts. In series Open and Distance Learning. London: Kogan Page.