- Late start
- Rapid growth rates
- How to avoid peripheralisation/exploitation?
B. Outline of economic development
- industrial heritage - copper, iron (bruk
- rural ironworks) exports to UK
- Early C19th: population growth, agricultural
transformation; grain exports
- From 1850s: expansion of timber exports;
technical innovation: steam saw.
- Investment: Stockholms Enskilda Bank
1857 (Wallenberg). State investment in railways.
- Tariffs 1888.
- Engineering industry: ASEA (electric motors
and generators); SKF (ball-bearings); L.M. Ericsson (telecommunications):
- Exports, multinational investment. Swedish
Match Company. Iron ore exports to Germany
- Grain production to c. 1870
- Agricultural crisis; shift to dairying:
cream separator - Nielsen 1878, de Laval 1879; producers' cooperatives
- first in 1882; 940 by 1900; then bacon industry (pigs fed on
- Folk High School movement from 1840s (Grundtvig).
- Railways: national enterprise post-1864;
Esbjerg built 1867-74; 60% of exports to UK (butter & bacon).
- Industry: early start but gradual growth.
Credit: Privatbanken 1857 (Tietgen).
- Early C19th: agricultural revolution; population
growth; end of union with Denmark.
- Expansion of export industries: fish, timber,
- From 1840s: beginnings of modern industry;
credit institutions: Den norske Creditbank 1857.
- Railway construction.
- Modernisation of timber and wood-processing
- Late C19th/early c20th: development of
hydro-electric power; nitrates industry: Norsk Hydro (Birkeland
& Eyde). Concession Laws 1909 (restricting foreign investment).
- Late development (1820: 3.7% of population
working in industry; by 1920 still only 13.3%).
- Timber exports to western Europe - rapid
expansion from 1870s; paper and pulp from 1860s.
- Iron exports to Russia until 1886 - blocked
by Russian tariff.
- From 1890s: industrial expansion - engineering,
C. Explanations for Scandinavian growth
1. External stimulus
- Foreign demand (Hodne, Jörberg, Youngson)
- Globalisation (O'Rourke, Williamson)
2. Scandinavian response
- Entrepreneurs (Hodne)
- Technology transfer (Bruland, Myllyntaus)
- Innovation (Gustavson)
- Labour force
- Population growth
- Agricultural transformation
- Social/cultural preconditions (Sandberg,
- Internal demand (Bergh)
- State (Tillotson, Sejersted, Myllyntaus,
- Tariffs (Sejersted, Senghaas)
- Economic nationalism (Sejersted,