Lecture 4: Nationalism and Scandinavianism
- What is a nation? State/territory/language
- What is nationalism? John Breuilly (Nationalism and the
State): nationalism is a form of politics; it is about power,
and power in the modern world is about control of the state. Dividing
old states, creating new ones.
Implications of nationalism for C19th Scandinavia:
- Creation of nation states
- Impact on 'Scandinavianism'
- Impact on linguistic/ethnic minorities
- Impact on 'excluded' classes
- Challenge for C20th - integrating the 'nation'
- Least problematic? Early C19th romantics - E. Tegnèr,
E.G. Geijer. Late
- C19th/early C20th conservatives - Rudolf Kjellén, Adrian
Molin, Harald Hjärne.
- Problem of Schleswig-Holstein
- Post-1864 national revival - Danish Heath Society: Enrico
- Swedish political dominance; Danish cultural dominance
- Cultural nationalism: 'Patriots' (Henrik Wergeland), 'Intelligence'
(J.S. Welhaven); Folklore (P.C. Asbjørnson & J. Moe)
|(modified Danish)||(peasant dialects)
|Welhaven ||P.A. Munch
|Henrik Ibsen||Halvdan Koht
- Swedish cultural dominance, Russian political dominance
- Snellman: social reform; 'finnicise' educated class
- 'Fennomans' - S. Yrjö-Koskinen (ex-Georg Forsman): agrarian
values, anti-Western; coexistence with Russia.
- Cultural nationalism: Kalevala (1835) - Elias Lönnroth.
- Karelia myth
- Neo-romanticism: Akseli Gallén Kallela (painter); Jean
- C20th implications: Academic Karelia Society (AKS); invasion
of Soviet Karelia (1941)