Limitations to n-type doping in diamond: The phosphorus-vacancy complex

R Jones, JE Lowther and J Goss
Applied Physics Letters

In spite of large concentrations of phosphorus being incorporated into. diamond, the material often remains insulating. It is argued that this occurs through the formation of phosphorus-vacancy complexes which are deep accepters and compensate any donor. The complex is analyzed using a first-principles cluster method. In the ionized state, the defect is diamagnetic and cannot give rise to any internal optical transitions although broad band donor-acceptor transitions are expected – and observed – in material codoped with nitrogen.

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