Archaeology: An Introduction - 4th Edition 2002
The Online Companion

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 : The Idea of The Past

:::: CHAPTER OVERVIEW ::::


1.1. THE INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY

1.1.1. Archaeology and antiquarianism, prehistory and history

1.1.2. The problem of origins and time


1.2. THE EMERGENCE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHODS

1.2.1. Greece and Rome

1.2.2. Medieval attitudes to antiquity

1.2.3. From medieval humanism to the Renaissance

1.2.4. Archaeology and the Enlightenment

1.2.5. Antiquarian fieldwork in Britain

:: John Aubrey (1626-97)

:: William Stukeley (1687-1765)

1.2.6. Fieldwork elsewhere

1.2.7. Touring, collecting and the origin of museums

1.2.8. Science and Romanticism


1.3. THE RECOGNITION AND STUDY OF ARTEFACTS

1.3.1. Scandinavia and the Three-Age System

1.3.2. Typology


1.4. HUMAN ORIGINS

1.4.1. Evidence for human antiquity

:: John Frere and Hoxne

:: Boucher de Perthes

1.4.2. Catastrophists, Uniformitarians, and the impact of Darwin


1.5. FROM HUNTING TO FARMING

1.5.1. World prehistory


1.6. THE DISCOVERY OF CIVILIZATIONS

1.6.1. Greece and Rome

1.6.2. Egypt and Mesopotamia

1.6.3. The Aegean Bronze Age: Schliemann and Troy

1.6.4. Greece and the Aegean: Evans and Knossos

1.6.5. India and Asia

1.6.6. Civilizations in the Americas


1.7. ACHIEVEMENTS OF EARLY ARCHAEOLOGY

1.7.1. Excavation: the investigative technique of the future




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CHAPTER 2 : Discovery and Investigation

:::: CHAPTER OVERVIEW ::::


2.1. SITES OR LANDSCAPES?


2.2. FIELD ARCHAEOLOGY

2.2.1. Field Survey

2.2.2. Fieldwalking

2.2.3. Recording and topographic/earthwork surveying

2.2.4. Sites and Monuments Records

2.2.5. Underwater survey


2.3. REMOTE SENSING

2.3.1. Airborne prospection

:: Aerial photography

:: Multispectral and thermal prospecting

:: Photogrammetry

:: Interpretation of aerial images

2.3.2. Geophysical and geochemical surveying

:: Resistivity surveying

:: Magnetic surveying

:: Metal detectors

:: Ground penetrating radar (GPR)

:: Seismic prospecting and geochemical examination of soil

:: Underwater location devices


2.4. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)


2.5. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY




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CHAPTER 3 : Excavation

:::: CHAPTER OVERVIEW ::::


3.1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES

3.1.1. The concept of stratification

3.1.2. General Pitt Rivers (1827-1900)

3.1.3. Developments in the twentieth century

3.1.4. Mortimer Wheeler (1890-1976)

3.1.5. From keyhole trenches to open areas


3.2. THE INTERPRETATION OF STRATIFICATION

3.2.1. Dating stratification


3.3. PLANNING AN EXCAVATION

3.3.1. Excavation, ethics and theory

3.3.2. Selection of a site

:: Types of archaeological investigation

3.3.3. PPG 16

3.3.4. Background research

:: Staff and equipment

:: Finds and environmental work


3.4. EXCAVATION STRATEGY

3.4.1. Forms of sites

:: Camps and caves

:: Permanent settlements

:: Cemeteries

3.4.2. Excavation in special conditions

:: Wetland archaeology

:: Underwater archaeology

3.4.3. Contexts and features

:: Banks and mounds

:: Ditches and pits

:: Surfaces and working areas

3.4.4. Structures and materials

:: Stone

:: Wood

:: Other building materials

:: Standing buildings

:: Reconstruction


3.5. RECORDS, ARCHIVES AND PUBLICATION

3.5.1. Recording

3.5.2. Publication




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CHAPTER 4 : Dating the Past

:::: CHAPTER OVERVIEW ::::


4.1. BACKGROUND


4.2. TYPOLOGY AND CROSS-DATING

4.2.1. Sequence dating and seriation


4.3. HISTORICAL DATING

4.3.1. Applying historical dates to sites


4.4. SCIENTIFIC DATING TECHNIQUES

4.4.1. Geological time-scales

4.4.2. Climatostratigraphy

:: Seabed deposits

:: Ice cores

4.4.3. Varves

4.4.4. Pollen

4.4.5. Dendrochronology (tree-ring dating)

:: The application of tree-ring dating


4.5. ABSOLUTE TECHNIQUES

4.5.1. Radioactive decay

4.5.2. Radiocarbon dating

:: Key factors

4.5.3. Presenting and interpreting a radiocarbon date

:: Radiocarbon samples

:: The impact of radiocarbon dating

4.5.4. Potassium-argon (40K/40Ar) and argon-argon dating (40Ar/39Ar)

4.5.5. Uranium series dating

4.5.6. Fission-track dating

4.5.7. Luminescence dating

4.5.8. Electron spin resonance (ESR)


4.6. DERIVATIVE TECHNIQUES

4.6.1. Protein and amino acid diagenesis dating

4.6.2. Obsidian hydration dating

4.6.3. Archaeomagnetic dating


4.7. THE AUTHENTICITY OF ARTEFACTS




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CHAPTER 5 : Archaeological Science

:::: CHAPTER OVERVIEW ::::


5.1. THE NATURE OF SCIENCE


5.2. THE ENVIRONMENT


5.3. CLIMATE


5.4. THE GEOSPHERE

5.4.1. Geology

5.4.2. Soils


5.5. THE BIOSPHERE

5.5.1. Plants

:: Pollen and phytoliths

:: Domestication of plants

:: Human impact upon vegetation

:: Tree rings

5.5.2. Animals

:: Identification of vertebrate bones

:: Interpretation

:: Biostratigraphy and seasonality

:: Biomolecular studies

5.5.3. Fish

5.5.4. Shells

:: Biomolecular studies

:: Land molluscs

5.5.5. Insects and other invertebrates

5.5.6. Humans

:: Burials

:: Pathology

:: Diet

:: Genetics


5.6. ARTEFACTS AND RAW MATERIALS

5.6.1. Methods of examination and analysis

:: Microscopic examination

:: Analysis and characterisation

5.6.2. Stone

:: Obsidian

5.6.3. Ceramics

5.6.4. Metals

:: Bronze

:: Iron

:: Roman coins


5.7. CONSERVATION

5.7.1. Ancient objects

5.7.2. Historic buildings and archaeological sites


5.8. STATISTICS


5.9. EXPERIMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY

5.9.1. Artefacts

5.9.2. Sites and structures




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CHAPTER 6 : Making Sense of the Past

:::: CHAPTER OVERVIEW ::::


6.1. WHERE IS ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY?

6.1.1. Too much knowledge?


6.2. ARCHAEOLOGICAL THEORY

6.2.1. Social evolution

:: Darwin and Marx

6.2.2. Culture history

:: Invasion, migration, or diffusion?

:: Nationalism and racism


6.3. TOWARDS PROCESSUAL ARCHAEOLOGY

6.3.1. The New Archaeology

6.3.2. Ethnoarchaeology and Middle Range Theory

:: Cognitive archaeology


6.4. TOWARDS POSTPROCESSUAL ARCHAEOLOGY

6.4.1. Postprocessualism

:: Eight key statements about postprocessual archaeology

6.4.2. Reflexive thinking

6.4.3. Modernity, modernism and postmodernism

:: Phenomenology and hermeneutics; constructivism, Critical Theory and post-colonialism

:: Structuralism and semiotics, post-structuralism and deconstruction

:: 'The archaeology of knowledge'

:: Postmodernism and archaeology


6.5. INTERPRETIVE ARCHAEOLOGY

6.5.1. Agency and structuration

6.5.2. Conflict, compromise, or pluralism?

6.5.3. Indigenous peoples and ethnicity

6.5.4. Gender


6.6. ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE PUBLIC

6.6.1. Heritage management: controlling the present by means of the past?

6.6.2. Archaeology and the State

6.6.3. Museums: from Art Gallery to 'Experience'

6.6.4. Stonehenge

6.6.5. The antiquities trade

6.6.6. Archaeology in the media


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