Steve Bull - Publications

Papers

Publications Arranged by Year Selected Publications Arranged by Subject

1986

Ion implantation, 1, 2, 3, 7, 23, 33, 65, 75, 80113117, 119122, 186, 284

1988

PVD, 5, 11, 17, 34, 42, 74, 82, 97, 103,104120, 122123131, 132, 273

1989

Thermal Spraying, 24, 30, 73, 85110

1990

CVD/PACVD/ALD, 29122131, 132, 249

1991

Ion Beam Assisted Deposition, 42, 47, 53, 71, 109, 172

1992

DLC/Diamond, 36, 43, 52, 54, 55, 57, 64, 66, 78, 94,100, 102120

1993

Indentation Testing and Contact Modelling, 8, 14, 22, 31, 92, 96, 100,107, 108112, 113, 116, 118120, 122, 123124, 126128131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 139, 144, 147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 156, 163, 164, 165, 167, 173, 176, 178, 182, 183, 185, 188, 191, 192, 194, 195,197, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 220, 221, 222, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 236, 243, 244, 248, 249, 251, 253,257, 260, 261, 267, 269, 270, 271, 273, 275, 276, 279, 281, 285, 287, 295, 296

1994

Scratch Testing, 4, 6, 10, 14, 19, 32, 405861, 67, 81, 99, 105114, 115, 120130132, 181, 215, 217, 243, 285, 288, 291

1995

Tribology, 13, 15, 35, 56, 59, 72,  74, 76, 101, 103, 110121, 122132, 136, 148, 156, 157, 158, 162, 188, 189, 223, 240, 250

1996

Reviews, 9, 12, 20, 26, 28, 39, 43, 60, 64, 86, 89118, 136, 148, 156, 178, 198 , 200, 204, 209, 232, 238, 243, 244, 251, 261, 285

1997

Residual stress, 11, 21, 23, 34, 39, 42, 81, 91, 95, 97, 102, 105, 106122, 138, 140, 141, 150, 159, 160, 180

1998

Oxidation, 82, 87, 88, 91, 106

1999

Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy, 62, 63, 70, 77, 80, 84, 90

2000

CNx, 109, 113124128, 153, 156

2001

Organic coatings, 115130

2002

Gears, 101, 134, 168, 169, 170

2003

Electronic materials, 93129, 135, 137, 138, 140, 141, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 159, 160, 161, 164, 166, 171, 174, 175, 177, 179, 187, 190, 193, 200, 207, 208, 210, 211, 218, 219, 232, 233, 241, 242, 247, 253,270

2004

Magnetic materials, 125, 127, 145

2005

Raman Spectroscopy, 152, 160, 232

2006

Metallisation 135, 137, 138, 140, 141, 149, 150, 151, 155, 159, 164, 166, 171, 180, 190, 208, 241, 251, 270

2007

Nanotechnology, 157, 158, 209
Textiles 142, 143, 154, 157, 163, 165, 176, 206
Lithium polymer batteries 215, 224, 225
Finite Element Modelling 164, 176, 194, 197, 213, 220, 221, 222, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 252, 255, 256, 257, 264, 265, 268, 272, 274, 282, 295

2011

Composites/Nanocomposites 49, 209, 254, 277, 278, 286

Atomistic simulation 78, 226, 263, 273
Organic light emitting diodes 233, 239, 249
Bioengineering 51, 202, 230, 235, 258, 260, 262, 266, 283, 293
Diffusion treatments 101, 110, 250
Sustainability 254, 257, 261
Adhesion 4, 6, 14, 19, 28, 32, 40, 44, 47, 61, 81, 83, 87, 114, 115, 130, 181, 196, 198, 217, 227, 234, 243, 256
Tidal turbines 277, 278, 286
Antimicrobial materials 288, 291
Agriculture 280, 290, 292, 294
  Pyrolysis and Gasification 297,


1986

[1] The charge state of titanium ions implanted into sapphire: An EXAFS investigation, A.J. Bourdillon, S.J. Bull, P.J. Burnett and T.F. Page, J. Mat. Sci., 21 (1986) 1546-1552.


1988

[2] The friction and wear of ion implanted ceramics: the role of adhesion, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, Nucl. Inst. Meth., B32 (1988) 91-95.

[3] High dose ion implantation of ceramics: Benefits and limitations for tribology, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, J. Mat. Sci., 23 (1988) 4217-4230.

[4] The use of scratch adhesion testing for the determination of interfacial adhesion - The importance of frictional drag, S.J. Bull, D.S. Rickerby, A. Matthews, A. Leyland and A.R. Pace, Surf. Coat. Technol., 36 (1988) 503-517.

[5] The abrasive wear resistance of sputter ion plated titanium nitride coatings, S.J. Bull, D.S. Rickerby, T. Robertson and A. Hendry, Surf. Coat. Technol., 36 (1988) 743-754.

[6] Scratch adhesion testing of hard, wear-resistant coatings, S.J. Bull, D.S. Rickerby, A. Matthews, A.R. Pace and A. Leyland, Proc. 1st Intnl. Conf. Plasma Surface Engineering, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, September 19-23, 1988, pp1227-1235.


1989

[7] Chemomechanical effects in ion implanted MgO, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 22 (1989) 941-947.

[8] An explanation for the indentation size effect in ceramics, S.J. Bull, T.F. Page and E.H. Yoffe, Phil. Mag. Lett., 59 (1989) 281-288.

[9] Evaluation of coatings, D.S. Rickerby and S.J. Bull, Brit. Ceram. Trans. J., 88 (1989) 177-183.

[10] Multi-pass scratch testing as a model for abrasive wear, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Thin Solid Films, 181 (1989) 545-553.

[11] High temperature x-ray diffraction studies of PVD titanium nitride, D.S. Rickerby, S.J. Bull, A.M. Jones, F. Cullen and B.A. Bellamy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 39/40 (1989) 397-408.

[12] Engineering with surface coatings: The role of coating microstructure, D.S. Rickerby and S.J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 39/40 (1989) 315-328.


1990

[13] The sliding wear of titanium nitride coatings, S.J. Bull, D.S. Rickerby and A. Jain, Surf. Coat. Technol., 41 (1990) 269-283.

[14] New developments in the modelling of the hardness and scratch adhesion of thin films, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Surf. Coat. Technol., 42 (1990) 149-164.

[15] The role of titanium in the abrasive wear resistance of PVD titanium nitride, D.S. Rickerby, S.J. Bull, T. Robertson and A. Hendry, Surf. Coat. Technol., 41 (1990) 63-74.

[16] The inter-relationship between the microstructure and tribological performance of PVD coatings, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, in "Mechanics of Coatings: Leeds-Lyon 16", Tribology series 17, eds. D. Dowson, C.M. Taylor and M. Godet, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990, pp337-349.

[17] Compositional, microstructural and morphological effects on the tribological performance of chromium-nitrogen thin films, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Surf. Coat. Technol., 43/44 (1990) 732-744.

[18] PVD hard coating processes, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, AEA-InTec-035 (1990).

[19] Failure modes in scratch adhesion testing: Some observations, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Surface Modification Technologies, Eds T.S. Sudarshan and D.G. Bhat, TMS, Warrendale, 1990, pp153-169.

[20] Tribology of hard coatings, R. Kingswell, D.S. Rickerby and S.J. Bull, Proc. Conference on New Materials and their Applications, Warwick, April 10-12, 1990, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 111 (1990) 101.

[21] Hard coatings, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 188 (1990) 337-348.

[22] The hardness and elastic modulus of TiN films as determined by ultra-low load indentation, M. E. O'Hern, W.C. Oliver, C.J. McHargue, D.S. Rickerby and S.J. Bull, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 188 (1990) 139-143.


1991

[23] Thermal effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ion implanted ceramics, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, J. Mat. Sci. 26 (1991) 3086-3106.

[24] Erosive wear of thermally sprayed tungsten coatings, R. Kingswell, D.S. Rickerby, S.J. Bull and K.T. Scott, Thin Solid Films, 198 (1991) 139-148.

[25] Comparison of the erosive wear behaviour of vacuum plasma sprayed and bulk alumina, R. Kingswell, D.S. Rickerby, S.J. Bull and K.T. Scott, in Thermal Spray Research and Applications: Proc. 1990 National Thermal Spray Conference, Long Beach, California, May 21-24, 1990, Ed. T.F. Bernecki, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 1991, pp179-185.

[26] Evaluation of coatings, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Chapter 12 in "Surface Engineering: Processes, Characterisation and Applications," eds D.S. Rickerby and A. Matthews, Blackie and Son Ltd., Glasgow, 1991, pp315-342.

[27] Characterisation of hard coatings, S.J. Bull and D.S. Rickerby, Chapter 5 in "Handbook of Hard Coatings; Deposition Technologies, Properties and Applications," ed R.F. Bunshah, Noyes Publications, New Jersey (2001), pp181-228. [This was written in 1991 for an earlier book that did not appear but was updated for the more recent publication].

[28] A review of methods for the evaluation of coating-substrate adhesion, P.R. Chalker, D.S. Rickerby and S.J. Bull, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Plasma Surface Engineering, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, September 1990, Mat. Sci. Eng., A140 (1991) 583-592.

[29] The influence of titanium interlayers on the adhesion of PACVD titanium nitride coatings, P.R. Chalker, S.J. Bull, C.F. Ayres and D.S. Rickerby, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Plasma Surface Engineering, Garmisch- Partenkirchen, September 1990, Mat. Sci. Eng., A139 (1991) 71-78.

[30] Erosion behaviour of plasma sprayed alumina coatings, R. Kingswell, K.T. Scott and S.J. Bull, Proc. 2nd Plasma-Technik Symposium, Lucerne, Switzerland, June 5-7, 1991, Eds. P. Huber and H. Eschnauer, PT, Wohlen, Switzerland, 1991, Vol III, pp367-375.

[31] Quality assurance assessment of thin films, S.J. Bull, D.S. Rickerby and J. Gent, Surf. Eng., 7 (1991) 145-153.

[32] Failure modes in scratch adhesion testing, S.J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 50 (1991) 25-32.


1992

[33] The effects of ion implantation on the hardness and friction behaviour of soda-lime silica glass, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, J. Mat. Sci., 27 (1992) 3605-3616.

[34] Microstructure and properties of titanium nitride films at elevated temperatures, S.J. Bull, D.S. Rickerby, J.C. Knight and T.F. Page, Surf. Eng., 8 (1992) 193-198.

[35] Lubricated Sliding wear of PVD titanium nitride, S.J. Bull and P.R. Chalker, Surf. Coat. Technol., 50 (1992) 117-126.

[36] Mechanical properties of diamond thin films, S.J. Bull, P.R. Chalker and C. Johnston, Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. Surface Modification Technologies, Eds T.S. Sudarshan and J. Braza, The Institute of Metals, London, 1992, pp205-215 (Mat. Sci. Technol., 8 (1992) 679-683).

[37] The role of titanium interlayers in the adhesion of titanium nitride thin films, S.J. Bull and P.R. Chalker, Proc Fifth Int. Conf. Surface Modification Technologies, Eds T.S. Sudarshan and J. Braza, The Institute of Metals, London, 1992, pp245-257.

[38] The protection of reactive metal substrates with sputter ion plated oxidation resistant coatings, P.R. Drewett, P.M. Finnerty, S.J Meyrick and S.J. Bull, Proc. IPAT 91, Brussells, 21-24 May 1991.

[39] Correlation of microstructure and properties of hard coatings, S.J. Bull, Proc. 3rd European Vacuum Conference, Vienna, September 23-27, 1991, Vacuum, 43 (1992) 387-391.

[40] Techniques for improving thin film adhesion, S.J. Bull, Proc. 3rd European Vacuum Conference, Vienna, September 23-27, 1991, Vacuum, 43 (1992) 517-520.

[41] The need for standardisation in coating evaluation techniques, S.R.J. Saunders and S.J. Bull, Proc Fifth Int. Conf. Surface Modification Technologies, Eds T.S. Sudarshan and J. Braza, The Institute of Metals, London, 1992, pp659-675.

[42] Residual stress in Ion Assisted Coatings, S.J. Bull, A.M. Jones, and A.R. McCabe, Surf. Coat. Technol., 54/55 (1992) 173-179.

[43] Diamond for Wear and Corrosion Applications, S.J. Bull and A. Matthews, Diamond and Related Materials, 1 (1992) 1049-1064.

[44] Interfaces and Adhesion, S.J. Bull, in "Advanced Techniques for Surface Engineering", Eds W. Gissler and H. Jehn, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992, pp31-68.


1993

[45] Microstructure/property relationships for nitride coatings, S.J. Bull and A.M. Jones, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Advances in Coatings and Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance, Newcastle-upon- Tyne, May 11-15, 1992, (Surface Engineering Volume II: Engineering Applications, Eds P.K. Datta and J.S. Gray, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1993, pp302-311).

[46] Large area Diamond-like Carbon Coatings by Ion Implantation, A.R. McCabe, G. Proctor, A.M. Jones, S.J. Bull and D.J. Chivers, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Advances in Coatings and Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, May 11-15, 1992, (Surface Engineering Volume III: Process Technology and Surface Analysis, Eds P.K. Datta and J.S. Gray, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1993, pp163-175).

[47] The effects of deposition temperature and interlayer thickness on the adhesion of ion-assisted titanium nitride films produced with yttrium metal interlayers, A.M. Jones, A.R. McCabe, S.J. Bull and G. Dearnaley, Nucl. Inst. Meth. B80/81 (1993) 1397-1401.

[48] Surface Engineering of ceramics, S.J. Bull, Materials World, June 1993, pp340-342.

[49] Advanced coatings and surface treatments for polymers and polymer matrix composites, S.J. Bull, Proc. 14th SAMPE exhibition and conference, International Convention Centre, Birmingham, 19-21 October 1993, pp161-170.

[50] Beispiel Industrieller Umsetzung: Entwicklung von deinstleistungen auf dem gebeit der ionen-implantation in Grossbritannien, S.J. Bull, in "Ionenimplantation - Chancen einer neuen Technologie in Osterreich, TU Vienna, 1993, pp53-56.

[51] Surface modification as a means of improving the lifetime of orthopaedic implants, G.P. Evans, A.R. McCabe, A.M. Jones, S.J. Bull and J. Asher, Proc. 14th SAMPE exhibition and conference, International Convention Centre, Birmingham, 19-21 October 1993, pp193-205.


1994

[52] Indentation response of diamond thin films, S.J. Bull, P.R. Chalker, C. Johnston and C.V. Cooper, Diamond and Related Materials, 4 (1994) 43-52.

[53] Mechanical Properties of ion-beam deposited diamond-like carbon on polymers, A.R. McCabe, A.M. Jones and S.J. Bull, Diamond and Related Materials, 3 (1994) 205-209.

[54] Modification of the electronic properties of ion beam deposited diamond -like carbon on polymers, A.R. McCabe, A.M. Jones, S.J. Bull and C. Johnston, Diamond and Related Materials, 3 (1994) 1265-1269.

[55] Friction and wear of diamond thin films, S.J. Bull, P.R. Chalker, C. Johnston and V. Moore, Diamond Films and Technology, 4 (1994) 1-14.

[56] Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam deposited diamond-like carbon on polymers, S.J. Bull, A.R. McCabe and A.M. Jones, Surf. Coat. Technol., 64 (1994) 87-91.

[57] Diamond-like carbon films investigated with positrons, A. Saleh, P. Rice-Evans and S.J. Bull, Phil. Mag., B70 (1994) 951-961.

[58] Multipass Scratch Testing at Sub-Critical Loads, S. Bennett, A. Matthews, S.J. Bull, J. Valli, A.J. Perry and W.D. Sproul, Finnish J. Tribology, 13 (1994) 16-28.

[59] The effect of roughness on the friction and wear of diamond thin films, S.J. Bull, P.R. Chalker, C. Johnston and V. Moore, Surf. Coat. Technol., 68/69 (1994) 603- 610.

[60] Microstructure/characterisation of coatings and thin films, S.J. Bull, ASM Handbook Volume 5: Surface Engineering, ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 1994, pp660-668.

[61] Scratch testing and its significance for coating performance, S.J. Bull, Proc. Workshop on Quality Assurance of Advanced Coatings at 2nd Australian Int. Conf. on Surface Engineering, Adelaide 7-10 March 1994, ppW95-W113; reprinted in "Quality Control and Assurance in Advanced Surface Engineering," Eds K.N. Strafford and C. Subramanian, The Institute of Materials, London, Book 678, (1997) pp161-181.


1995

[62] Aluminium nitride layers investigated by slow positrons, A. Saleh, P. Rice-Evans and S.J. Bull, Appl. Surf. Sci., 85 (1995) 325-328.

[63] Positron beam spectroscopy for the assessment of the structure and defect density of titanium nitride, P.C. Rice-Evans, A. Saleh and S.J. Bull, Appl. Surf. Sci., 85 (1995) 320-324.

[64] Tribology of carbon; DLC, diamond and beyond, S.J. Bull, Diamond and Related Materials, 4 (1995) 827-836.

[65] The effects of ion implantation on the friction behaviour of sapphire, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, J. Mat. Sci, 30 (1995) 5356-5370.

[66] High performance diamond and diamond-like coatings, S.J. Bull and P.R. Chalker, Journal of Materials, April 1995, 16-19.

[67] Spallation failure maps from scratch testing, S.J. Bull, Materials at High Temperature, 13 (1995) 169-174.

[68] Assessment techniques for cleaned and pretreated adherends, S.J. Bull, B.A. Bellamy, H.E. Bishop and R.J. Lee, Proc. SAE 4, Bristol, July 1995, Institute of Materials, London, pp159-164.

[69] A critical evaluation of mechanical test methods for coatings, thin films and ion implanted surfaces, S.J. Bull, A. Matthews, T.F. Page and J. Nicholls, presented at SMMIB ‘95, San Sebastian, September 4-8 1995.


1996

[70] Positron annihilation studies of defects in PVD TiN, S.J. Bull, P.C. Rice-Evans and A.S. Saleh., Surf. Coat. Technol., 78 (1996) 42-49.

[71] Radiation hardness of DLC films produced by ion-assisted deposition, S. Prawer, B. Ran, R. Kalish, C. Johnston, P. Chalker, S.J. Bull, A.R. McCabe and A.M. Jones, Diamond and Related Materials, 5 (1996) 405-409.

[72] Laboratory characterisation of the wear behaviour of PVD coated tool steels and correlation with tool performance, K. Rutherford, S.J. Bull, D. Doyle and I.M. Hutchings., Surf. Coat. Technol., 80 (1996) 176-184.

[73] The sliding wear of plasma sprayed alumina, S.J. Bull, R. Kingswell and K.T. Scott, Surf. Coat. Technol., 82 (1996) 218-225.

[74] Multilayer coatings for improved tribological performance, S.J. Bull and A.M. Jones, Surf. Coat. Technol., 78 (1996) 173-184.

[75] Improving the mechanical properties of steels using low energy, high current nitrogen ion implantation, S.J. Bull, A.M. Jones and A.R. McCabe, Surf. Coat. Technol., 83 (1996) 257-262.

[76] Changing the tribological properties of steels using low energy, high current nitrogen ion implantation, A.M. Jones, and S.J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 83 (1996) 269-274.

[77] Investigation of magnetron sputtered titanium nitride films using positron annihilation spectroscopy, A.P. Knights, A.S. Saleh, P.C. Rice-Evans, S.J. Bull, F. Richter, F. Elstner and H. Kupfer, J. Phys. B: Condensed Matter, 8 (1996) 2479-2486.

[78] Computational materials synthesis III: Synthesis of hydrogenated amorphous carbon from molecular precursors, P.D. Godwin, A.P. Horsfield, A.M. Stoneham, S.J. Bull, I.J. Ford, A.H. Harker, D.G. Pettifor and A.P. Sutton, Phys. Rev. B, 54 (1996) 15785-15794.

[79] Assessment of Adherend Surfaces Prior to Adhesive Bonding: Reliability, reproducibility and Quantification, S.J. Bull, B.A. Bellamy, H.E. Bishop and R.J. Lee, Proc. Euradh 96, Cambridge, September 1996.


1997

[80] Slow positron annihilation studies of defects in metal implanted TiN coatings, S.J. Bull, A. Saleh, P. Rice-Evans, A.J. Perry and J.R. Treglio, Surf. Coat. Technol., 91 (1997) 7-12.

[81] Failure mode maps in the thin film scratch adhesion test, S.J. Bull, Tribology International, 30 (1997) 491-498.

[82] Protection of titanium aluminides by FeCrAlY coatings, M.J. Bennett and S.J. Bull, Materials and Corrosion: Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 48 (1997) 48-55.

[83] Failure modes in the scratch adhesion testing of thin coatings, S.J. Bull, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Advances in Surface Engineering, 14th-17th May 1996, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Advances in Surface Engineering Volume I: Fundamentals of Coatings, Eds. P.K. Datta and J.S. Burnell-Gray, Royal Society of Chemistry, London (1997), pp274-285.

[84] Annealing of defects in PVD TiN: A positron annihilation spectroscopy study, S.J. Bull, A.M. Jones, A.R. McCabe, A. Saleh and P.C. Rice-Evans, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Advances in Surface Engineering, 14th-17th May 1996, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Advances in Surface Engineering Volume II: Process Technology, Eds. P.K. Datta and J.S. Burnell-Gray, Royal Society of Chemistry, London (1997) pp 48-58.

[85] Coating of silicon carbide matrix composites for industrial use in corrosive environments, S.J. Bull and A.R. McCabe, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Advances in Surface Engineering, 14th-17th May 1996, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Advances in Surface Engineering Volume III: Engineering Applications, Eds. P.K. Datta and J.S. Burnell-Gray, Royal Society of Chemistry, London (1997), pp209-217.

[86] Tribological and microtribological phenomena in coatings, S.J. Bull, in "Surface Coatings for Advanced Materials," Ed R.P. Agarwala, Materials Science Forum, 246 (1997) 105-152.

[87] Microscopy of failure in the scratch adhesion testing of oxide scales, S.J. Bull, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Microscopy of Oxidation, Cambridge, 16-18 September 1996, Eds S.B. Newcomb and J.A. Little, Institute of Materials, Book 675, (1997) pp309-319.

[88] Improved oxidation resistance of titanium aluminide by overlay coatings, M.J. Bennett and S.J. Bull, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Microscopy of Oxidation, Cambridge, 16-18 September 1996, Eds S.B. Newcomb and J.A. Little, Institute of Materials, Book 675, (1997) pp339-351.

[89] Surface Engineering in UK Academia, S.J. Bull, Trans. Inst. Metal Finishing, 75 Pt. 4 (1997) 80-83.

[90] Defect profiling with low energy positrons of nitrogen implanted silicon, D.P. van der Werf, A.S. Saleh, A. Towner, M. Nathwani, J. Taylor, P.C. Rice-Evans and S.J. Bull, Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Positron Annihilation, Kansas City, May 1997, Materials Science Forum, 255 (1997) 500-502.


1998

[91] Modelling of residual stress in oxide scales, S.J. Bull, Oxidation of Metals, 49 (1998) 1-17.

[92] On the hardness of coated systems, A.M. Korsunsky, M. R. McGurk, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, Surf. Coat. Technol., 99 (1998) 171-183.

[93] Simple computer modelling of the grain microstructure for electromigration studies, K.S. Low, S.J. Bull and A.G. O’Neill, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 472, (1998) 191-196.

[94] Elastic and plastic deformation of diamond-like carbons, A.M. Stoneham, P.D. Godwin, A.P. Sutton and S.J. Bull, Applied Physics Letters, 72 (24) (1998) 3142-3144.

[95] Time-dependent changes in the mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films, S.J. Bull and S.V. Hainsworth, Proc. Specialist Meeting on Amorphous Carbon, Cambridge, 31 July-1 August, 1997, In ‘Amorphous Carbon: State of the Art’, Eds S.R.P. Silva, J. Robertson, W.I. Milne and G.A.J. Amaratunga, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, (1998) pp272-278.

[96] Micro and nanoindentation testing of coated systems, S.J. Bull, Proc. workshop on "Mechanical Behaviour of PVD coated Materials," Holzhau, October 13-17, 1997, Eds. H Oettel, S. Hogmark and J. von Stebut, B287 Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg (1998) pp183-211.

[97] The effect of creep on the residual stress in vapour deposited thin films, S.J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 107 (1998) 101-105.

[98] Protective coatings for silicon carbide matrix composites for use in corrosive environments, S.J. Bull, Proc. Fibre Reinforced Composites; Consolidating New Applications, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 15-17 April, 1998, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, (1998) pp271-278.

[99] Scratch deformation response of thin CNx coatings at ultra-low loads, S.V. Hainsworth, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 522 (1998) 433-438.


1999

[100] Mechanical properties of thin carbon overcoats, S.J. Bull and A.M. Korsunsky, Proc. Int. Conf. Tribology of Information Storage Devices, London, December 1997, Tribology Int., 31 (1999) 547-551.

[101] The effects of white layer on micro-pitting and surface contact fatigue failure of nitrided gears, S.J. Bull, J.T. Evans, B.A. Shaw and D.A. Hoffman, J. Engineering Tribology (Proc. IMechE J), 213 (1999) 305-313.

[102] Time-dependent changes in the mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films, S.J. Bull and S.V. Hainsworth, Surf. Coat. Technol., 122 (1999) 225-229.

[103] The effect of Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) on TiN coatings deposited PVD and the steel-turning performance of coated cemented carbide, Anthony J. Perry, Jesse N. Matossian, Steve J. Bull, Dmitri I. Proskurovsky, Peter C. Rice-Evans, Trevor F. Page, Daniel E. Geist, James Taylor, John J. Vajo, Robert E. Doty, Vladimir P. Rotshtein and Alexey B. Markov, Surf. Coat. Technol., 120-121 (1999) 337-342.

[104] Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of TiN coatings deposited by CVD and PVD using a Low Energy, High Current Electron Beam (LEHCEB): Micro-Structural Studies and Steel Turning Properties, Anthony J. Perry, Jesse N. Matossian, Steve J. Bull, Dmitri I. Proskurovsky, Peter C. Rice-Evans, Trevor F. Page, Daniel E. Geist, James Taylor, John J. Vajo, Robert E. Doty, Vladimir P. Rotshtein and Alexey B. Markov, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 30 (1999) 2931-2939.

[105] Can scratch testing be used as a model for the abrasive wear of hard coatings, S.J. Bull, Proc. Int. Conf. Erosion and Abrasive Wear, Cambridge, September 1998, Wear, 233-235 (1999) 412-423.

 


2000

[106] The effect of creep on the residual stress in vapour deposited thin films and thermally grown oxide scales, S.J. Bull, Proc. Int. Conf. High Temperature Surface Engineering, Eds. J. Nicholls, and D.S. Rickerby, Institute of Materials B693, London, (2000) pp247-260.

[107] Modelling of the hardness of electroplated nickel coatings on copper substrates, J.R. Tuck, A.M. Korsunsky, S.J. Bull and D.M. Elliot, Surf. Coat. Technol., 127 (2000) 1-8.

[108] Design for hardness of electroplated Ni coatings, Jonathan R. Tuck, Alexander M. Korsunsky, R.I. Davidson and Steve J. Bull, Trans. Inst. Metal Finishing, 78 (2000) 105-109.

[109] Growth and characterisation of hard elastic carbon nitride thin films, A. Kolitsch, W. Möller, Th. Malkow, S. J. Bull, V. Magula, M. Domankova, Proc. Int. Conf. Surface Modification of Materals by Ion Beams, Peking, 19-24 September, 1999, Surf. Coat. Technol., 128-129 (2000) 126-132.

[110] A simulation test for the selection of coatings and surface treatments for plastics injection moulding machines, S.J. Bull, R.I. Davidson, E.H. Fisher, A.R. McCabe and A.M. Jones, Surf. Coat. Technol., 130 (2000) 257-265.

[111] The surface damage in titanium nitride associated with lateral sputtering by argon gas cluster ions, A.J. Perry, S.J. Bull, A. Dommann, D. Rafaja, B.P. Wood and M. Michler, Surf. Coat. Technol., 133-134 (2000) 253-258.

 


2001

[112] On the application of the work-of-indentation approach to depth-sensing indentation experiments in coated systems, J.R. Tuck, A.M. Korsunsky and R.I. Davidson, Surf. and Coat. Technol., 137 (2001) 217-224.

[113] Hardness measurements on thin IBAD CNx films - a comparative study, Th. Malkow and S.J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 137 (2001) 197-204.

[114] Can the scratch test ever be quantitative?, S.J. Bull, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Adhesion measurement of Thin Films and Coatings, Oct 25-27, Newark, New Jersey, 1999, Adhesion Measurement of Films and Coatings Voume 2 , Ed. K.L. Mittal, VSP International Science Publishers, Zeist, The Netherlands (2001) 107-130.

[115] Scratch test failure modes and performance of organic coatings for marine applications,  S. J. Bull, K. Horvathova, I.P. Gilbert, D. Mitchell, R.I. Davidson and J.R. White, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Adhesion measurement of Thin Films and Coatings, Oct 25-27, Newark, New Jersey, 1999, Adhesion Measurement of Films and Coatings Voume 2 , Ed. K.L. Mittal, VSP International Science Publishers, Zeist, The Netherlands (2001) 159-174.

[116] Indentation hardness evaluation of cathodic arc deposited thin hard coatings, J. R. Tuck, A. M. Korsunsky, D. G. Bhat, and S. J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 139 (2001) 63-74.

[117] The Smoothness, hardness and stress in titanium nitride following argon gas cluster ion beam treatment, Anthony J. Perry, Steve J. Bull, Alex Dommann, Markus Michler, Blake P. Wood, David Rafaja and J.N. Matossian, Surf. Coat. Technol., 140 (2001) 99-108.

[118] Interface engineering and graded films; structure and characterisation, S.J. Bull, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A19 (2001) 1404-1414.

[119] Ion implantation in ceramics, T.F. Page and S.J. Bull, in K. H. J. Buschow, R. W. Cahn, M. C. Flemings, B. Ilschner, E. J. Kramer, and S. Mahajan (eds.) "Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology", Elsevier Science, Oxford, Vol. 5, 2001, pp. 4286-92.

[120] Characterisation of four commercially produced surface treatments, J.R. Diebel, K. Sridharan and S.J. Bull, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 10 (2001)263-269.

[121] A simulation test for plastics injection moulding machines, S.J. Bull and Q. Zhou, Wear, 249 (2001) 372-378.

[122] On the mechanism of improvement of TiN-coated tool life by nitrogen implantation, S.J. Bull, Yu.P. Sharkeev, S.V. Fortuna, I.A. Shulepov and A.J. Perry, J. Mater. Res. 16 (2001) 3293-3303.

[123] Modelling the hardness response of bulk materials, single and multi-layer coatings, S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 398-399 (2001) 291-298.

[124] Mechanical properties and characterisation of very thin CNx films synthesised by IBAD, T. Malkow, I. Arce-Garcia, A. Kolitsch, D. Schneider, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, Diamond and Related Materials, 10 (2001) 2199-2211.

[125] Barkhausen noise study of soft magnetic composites, I.P. Gilbert, S.J. Bull, J.T. Evans, V. Moorthy and B.A. Shaw, Proc. Conf. Barkhausen Noise and Micromagnetic Testing-III, ICBM 3, Tampere, Finland, Stresstech, 2001, pp168-173.

 


2002

[126] Extracting hardness and Young's Modulus from nanoindentation load-displacement curves, S.J. Bull, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde, 93 (2002) 870-874.

[127] Barkhausen Noise Study of Soft Magnetic Composites, I.P. Gilbert, V. Moorthy, S.J. Bull and J.T. Evans, Proc Joint European Magnetics Symposia '01, Grenoble, August 28th - September 1st 2001, J. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 242-245 (2002) 232-234.

[128] How hard is fullerene-like CNx? Some observations from the nanoindentation response of a magnetron-sputtered coating, I. Arce-Garcia, E.R. Gutierrez-Berasetegui, S.J. Bull and T.F. Page, Proc. 2nd Int. Indentation Workshop, Cambridge, July 2001, Ed. M.M. Chaudhri, Phil Mag., 82 (2002) 2133-2147.

[129] Effect of MOS processing on the surface roughness of strained Si/SiGe material, S.H. Olsen, A.G. O'Neill, S.J. Bull, N.J. Woods and J. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys., 92 (2002) 1298-1306.

[130] Preliminary investigation into the application of scratch testing to marine coatings, S. J. Bull, R.I. Davidson, K. Horvathova, D. Mitchell, and J.R. White, J. Mater. Sci., 37 (2002) 4937-4943.

 


2003

[131] Properties and Performance of Commercial TiCN coatings; Part 1: Coating Architecture and Hardness Modelling, S.J. Bull, D.G. Bhat, and M.H. Staia, Surf. Coat. Technol., 163-164 (2003) 499-506.

[132] Properties and Performance of Commercial TiCN coatings; Part 2: Tribological Performance, S.J. Bull, D.G. Bhat and M.H. Staia, Surf. Coat. Technol., 163-164 (2003) 507-514.

[133] On the origins and mechanisms of the indentation size effect, S.J. Bull, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde, 94 (2003) 787-792.

[134] Nanoindentation testing of gear steels, A.Oila and S.J. Bull, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde, 94 (2003) 793-797.

[135] Assessment of aluminium thin films by nanoindentation, S. Soare, S. J. Bull, A. Horsfall, J. dos Santos, A.G. O’Neill and  N.G. Wright,Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 750 (2003) 83-88.

[136] Modelling the mechanical and tribological properties of coatings and surface treatments, S.J. Bull,  Mat. Res. Symp.Proc., 750 (2003) 489-500.

[137] Direct measurement of residual stress in integrated circuit interconnect features, A.B. Horsfall, J.M.M. dos Santos, S.M. Soare, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill, S.J. Bull, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, J.T.M. Stevenson, Proc. European symposium on the reliability of electron devices (ESREF), 6-10 October 2003, Bordeaux, Microelectronics Reliability,  43 (2003) 1797-1801.

[138] A sensor for the direct measurement of process-induced residual stress in sub-micron interconnects, A.B. Horsfall, J.M.M. dos Santos, S.M. Soare, N.G. Wright, A.G. O'Neill, S.J. Bull, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach and J.T.M. Stevenson, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 18 (2003) 992-996.

[139] The intrinsic mechanical loss factor of hydroxy-catalysis bonds for use in the mirror suspensions of gravitational wave detectors, P.H. Sneddon, S. Bull, G. Cagnoli, D.R.M. Crooks, E.J. Elliffe, J.E. Faller, M.M. Fejer, J. Hough and S. Rowan, Classical and Quantum Gravity, 20 (2003) 5025-5037.

[140] A novel sensor for the direct measurement of process induced residual stress in interconnects, A.B. Horsfall, J.M.M. dos Santos, S.M. Soare, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill, S.J. Bull, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, J.T.M. Stevenson, Proc. ESSDERC 2003, 16-18 September, 2003, Lisbon, pp115-119.

[141] Residual stress sensor for the microelectronics industry, J.M.M. dos Santos, N.G. Wright, A.B. Horsfall, S.M. Soare, A.G. O’Neill, S.J. Bull, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, J.T.M. Stevenson, Proc Eurosensors XV11, University of Minho, Portugal, 21-24 September 2003, pp965-968.

[142] Simulation of deformation of flexible material pressed by differently shaped grippers, Hua Lin, Steve J. Bull and Paul M. Taylor, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Innovation and Modelling of Clothing Engineering Processes, Maribor, Slovenia, 9-11 October 2003.

 

[143] A mathematical model of contact deformation for a pinch gripper in automated garment assembly, Hua Lin, Paul M. Taylor and Steve J. Bull, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Innovation and Modelling of Clothing Engineering Processes, Maribor, Slovenia, 9-11 October 2003.

 


 

2004

 

[144] Nanoindentation assessment of aluminium metallisation; the effect of creep and pile-up, S. Soare, S. J. Bull, A. O’Neill, N. Wright, A. Horsfall and J.M.M. dos Santos, Proc. Int. Conf. Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, April 2003, Surf. Coat. Technol., 177-178 (2004) 497-503.

 

[145] Effects of processing upon the properties of soft magnetic composites for low loss applications, I.P. Gilbert, S.J. Bull, T. Evans, A. Jack, D. Stephenson, and A. De Sa,  J. Mater. Sci., 39 (2004) 457-461.

 

[146] Thermal oxidation of strained Si/SiGe: Impact of surface morphology and effect on MOS devices, S.H. Olsen, A.G. O’Neill, D.J. Norris, A.G. Cullis, S.J. Bull, S. Chattopadhyay, K.S.K. Kwa, L.S. Driscoll, A.M. Waite, Y.T. Tang and A.G.R. Evans, Mat. Sci. Eng. B109 (2004) 78-84.

[147] Mechanical modelling of optical coatings, E. G-Berasategui, S. J. Bull and T. F. Page, Proc. Int. Conf. Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, April 2003, Thin Solid Films, 447-448 (2004) 26-32.

[148] Modelling of the indentation response of coatings and surface treatments, S.J. Bull, E.G.-Berasetegui and T.F. Page, Wear, 256 (2004) 857-866.

[149] Determination of mechanical parameters for rotating MEMS structures as a function of deposition method, S. Soare, S. J. Bull, A. Oila, A. O’Neill, N. Wright, A. Horsfall and J. dos Santos, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 795 (2004) 363-368.

[150] High sensitivity in a micro-rotating structure for predicting induced thermo-mechanical stress in integrated circuit metal interconnects, J.M.M. dos Santos, K. Wang, S.M. Soare, S.J. Bull, A.B. Horsfall, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach and J.T.M. Stevenson, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 795 (2004) 467-472.

[151] Test chip for the development and evaluation of test structures for measuring stress in metal interconnects, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, J.T.M. Stevenson, A.B. Horsfall, K. Wang, J.M.M. dos Santos, S.M. Soare, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill and S.J. Bull, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Microelectronics Test Structures, Awaji Yumebutai, Hyogo, Japan, March 23-25, 2004 pp. 69-73.

[152] Measurement of the residual strain in strained Si/SiGe using Raman spectroscopy, P. Dobrosz, S.J. Bull, S.H. Olsen and A.G. O’Neill, Z. Metall., 95 (2004) 340-344.

[153] Dynamic Indentation Measurements on Amorphous Materials, J. F. Palacio and S.J. Bull, Z. Metall., 95 (2004) 335-339.

[154] Modelling the indentation of fabric by differently shaped pinch grippers, H. Lin, P. M. Taylor and S. J. Bull, Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol., 16 (2004) 374-393.

[155] Calibration and optimisation of interconnect-based MEMS test structures for predicting thermo-mechanical stress in metallisation, A.B. Horsfall, K. Wang, J.MM. dos Santos, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill, S.M. Soare, S.J. Bull, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach and J.T.M. Stevenson, Proc. IEEE Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, Phoenix, April 25-29,  2004, pp255-258.

[156] Indentation response of fullerene-like CNx, J.F. Palacio, I. Arce-Garcia and S.J. Bull, Tribology International special issue on “Novel Carbons in Tribology”, 37 (2004) 929-940.

[157] Multifunctional nanocomposites; novel materials with potential textile applications? S.J. Bull, Proc. Conf. Present Status and Future Potential of nanotechnologies in the Textile Industry, 30th April 2004, Leeds, Technitex Faraday Partnership, 2004.

[158] Nanostructured Materials and Surfaces; Properties, Performance and Potential Applications, Steve J. Bull, Proc. Nanofair, St Gallen, 14-16 September, 2004.

[159] Dependence of process parameters on stress generation in aluminium thin films, A.B. Horsfall, K. Wang, J.MM. dos Santos, S.M. Soare, S.J. Bull, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach and J.T.M. Stevenson,. IEEE Trans. Device and Material Reliability, 4 (2004) 482-487.

[160] Measurement of the residual macro and microstrain in strained Si/SiGe using Raman spectroscopy, P. Dobrosz, S.J. Bull, S.H. Olsen and A.G. O'Neill, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 809 (2004) 109-114.

[161] Impact of Ge diffusion and wafer cross hatching on strained Si MOSFET electrical parameters, L. Driscoll, S. Olsen, S. Chattopadhyay, A. O'Neill, K. Kwa, P. Dobrosz, and S. Bull, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 809 (2004) 225-230.


 

2005

[162] The effect of temperature on the abrasive wear of coatings and surface treatments for plastics injection moulding machines, P. Boey, W. Ho and S.J. Bull,  Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Erosive and Abrasive Wear, September 22-25, Cambridge, 2003, Wear, 258 (2005) 149-156.

[163] A mathematical model for grasping analysis of flexible materials, H. Lin, S. J. Bull, and P. M. Taylor, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 13 (2005) 185-201.

[164] Obtaining mechanical parameters for metallisation stress sensor design using nanoindentation, S. Soare, S. J. Bull, A. Oila, A.G. O’Neill, N.G. Wright, A. Horsfall and J.M.M. dos Santos, Z. Metall., 96 (2005) 1262-1266.

[165] An experimental study of the factors affecting the indentation of fabric under a pinch gripper, H. Lin, P. M. Taylor and S. J. Bull, Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol., 17 (2005) 320-334.

[166] Sensitivity of a rotating beam sensor for stress evaluation in aluminium thin films, J.M.M. dos Santos, J.C.P. Pina, A.C. Batista, A.B. Horsfall, K. Wang, N.G. Wright, S.M. Soare, S.J. Bull, A.G. O’Neill, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, and J.T.M.Stevenson, Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Residual Stress (ICRS-7), Materials Science Forum, 490-491 (2005) 649-654

[167] Indentation fracture, acoustic emission and modelling of the mechanical properties of thin ceramic coatings, S.J. Bull, I. Arce-Garcia, E. G-Berasetegui and T.F.Page, Proc. 8th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Houston, February 25th-1st March 2003, Active Materials, Nanoscale Materials, Composites, Glass and Fundamentals 14, Eds. R.C. Bradt, D. Munz, M. Sakai and K.W. White, Springer, New York, (2005), pp 21-41.

[168] Assessment of the factors influencing micropitting in rolling/sliding contacts, A. Oila and S.J. Bull, Wear, 258 (2005) 1510-1524.

[169] Phase transformations associated with micropitting in rolling/sliding contacts, A. Oila and S.J. Bull, J. Mater. Sci., 40 (2005) 4767-4774.

[170] Martensite decay in micropitted gears, A. Oila, S.J. Bull, B.A. Shaw, C.J. Aylott,  J. Eng. Tribology (Proc. IMechE Part J) 219 (2005) 77-83.

[171] Test chip for the development and evaluation of test structures for measuring stress in metal interconnects, J.G. Terry, S. Smith, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, J.T.M. Stevenson, A.B. Horsfall, K. Wang, J.M.M. dos Santos, S.M. Soare, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill and S.J. Bull, IEEE Trans. Semiconductor Manufacturing, 18 (2005) 255-261.

[172] Gold nitride - conductor but harder than gold, Lidija Šiller, Nikolaos Peltekis,  Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Yimin Chao, Steve J. Bull and Michael R.C. Hunt, Appl. Phys. Lett., 86 (2005) 221912.

[173] Comments on –mechanical modelling of multilayer optical coatings: authors reply, T.F. Page and S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 484 (2005) 439-442.  

[174] Study of strain relaxation in Si/SiGe metaloxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, S.H. Olsen, A.G. O'Neill, P. Dobrosz, S.J. Bull, L.S. Driscoll, S. Chattopadhyay and K.S.K. Kwa, J. Appl. Phys., 97 (2005) 114504.

[175The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify strain and strain relaxation in strained Si/SiGe structures, P. Dobrosz, S.J. Bull, S.H. Olsen, A.G. O’Neill,  Surf. Coat. Technol., 200 (2005) 1755-1760.

[176Simulation of the deformation and stress distribution within a flexible material pressed by a pinch gripper, H. Lin, S. J. Bull and P. M. Taylor, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 169 (2005) 357-363.

[177On the relationship between electrical performance and Raman spectroscopic results for strained Si/SiGe devices, S.J. Bull, P. Dobrosz, S.H. Olsen and A.G. O’Neill, Proc. ICSI-4, (2005).

[178] Nanoindentation of coatings, S.J. Bull, J. Phys. D: Applied Physics, 38 (2005) R393-R413.

[179] Mobility-limiting mechanisms in single and dual channel strained Si/SiGe MOSFETs, S.H. Olsen, P. Dobrosz, E. Escobedo-Cousin, S.J. Bull and A.G. O’Neill, Mat. Sci. Eng. B, 124 (2005) 107-112.

[180] Calibration of MEMS based test structures for predicting thermo-mechanical stress in integrated circuit interconnect structures, J.M.M. dos-Santos, K. Wang A.B. Horsfall, J.C. Prata Pina, N.G. Wright, A.G. O’Neill, S.M. Soare, S.J. Bull, J.G. Terry, A.J. Walton, A.M. Gundlach, J.T.M. Stevenson, IEEE Trans Device and Materials Reliability 5 (2005) 713-719.


 

2006

 

[181] An overview of the potential for quantitative coating adhesion measurement by scratch testing, S.J. Bull and E.G-Berasetegui, Tribology International, 39 (2006) 99-114. Special issue on scratch testing.

[182Nanoindentation Response of High Performance Fullerene-Like CNx, J.F Palacio, S.J. Bull, J. Neidhart, L. Hultman, Thin Solid Films, 494 (2006) 63-68.

[183] Assessment of the toughness of thin coatings using nanoindentation under displacement control, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 494 (2006) 1-7.

[184] Wear resistant coatings by Physical Vapour Deposition, S.J. Bull, in “Surface Coatings for Protection Against Wear,” Ed. B.G. Mellor, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Abington, (2006), pp146-183.

[185] A new method based on work-displacement curve to assess the toughness of coated system, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 890 (2006) 57-62.

[186] On high dose nitrogen implantation of PVD titanium nitride, Yuri P. Sharkeev, Steve J. Bull, Anthony J. Perry, Melissa L. Klingenberg, Sergei Fortuna, Markus Michler, Rafael R. Manory and Ivan A. Shulepov, Surf. Coat. Technol., 200 (2006) 5915-5920.

[187] Impact of strained-Si thickness and Ge out-diffusion on gate oxide quality for strained –Si surface channel n-MOSFETs, Goutam Kumar Dalapati, Sanatan Chattopadhyay, Kelvin S.K. Kwa, Sarah H. Olsen, Y.L. Tsang, Rimoon Aigby, Anthony G. O’Neill, Piotr Dobrosz and Steve J Bull, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 53 (2006) 1142-1152.

[188] Using work of indentation to predict erosion behaviour in bulk materials and coatings, S.J. Bull, J.Phys. D: Applied Physics, 39 (2006) 1626-1634.

[189] Predicting erosion behaviour in bulk materials and coatings using work of indentation, S.J. Bull, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 890 (2006) 255-264.

[190] Direct measurement of electromigration induced stress in interconnect structures, C. J. Wilson, A. B. Horsfall, A. G. O'Neill, N. G. Wright, S. J. Bull, J. G. Terry, A. J. Walton, Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, San Jose, CA, 2006, IEEE, NY (2006) pp123-127.

[191] Dynamic nanoindentation of some polyolefins, N. Bouaita, J. Fernandez-Palacio, J.R. White and S.J. Bull, Polym. Eng. Sci., 46 (2006) 1160-1172.

[192] Measuring and modelling the instrumented indentation (nanoindentation) response of coated systems, T.F. Page and S.J. Bull, Proc. Conf on Nanoindentation, Crete, October 2005, Phil. Mag., 86 (2006) 5331-5346.

[193] Control of self-heating in thin virtual substrate strained Si MOSFETs, Sarah H. Olsen, Enrique Escobedo-Cousin, John B. Varzgar, Johan Seger, Peter Dobrosz, Sanatan, Chattopadhyay, Steve J. Bull, Anthony G. O’Neill, Per-Erik Hellstrom, Jonas Edholm, Mikael Ostling, Klara Lyutovich, Michael Oehme and Erich Kasper, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 53 (2006) 2296-2305.

[194] A critical examination of the relationship between plastic deformation zone size and Young’s Modulus to hardness ratio in indentation testing, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, J. Mater. Res., 21 (2006) 2617-2627.

[195] Chemomechanical effects in optical coating systems, K.J. Belde and S.J. Bull, Proc. Int. Conf. Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, May 1-5, 2006, Thin Solid Films., 515 (2006) 859-865.

[196] Intentional Polymer Particle Contamination and the Simulation of Adhesion Failure in Transit Scratches in Ultra-Thin Solar Control Coatings on Glass, Krishna J. Belde and S.J. Bull, Proc. 10th Int. Symposium on Particles on Surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal, Ed. R. Lacombe, June 19-21, 2006, Toronto, Canada.

[197] On the relationship between plastic zone radius and residual depth during nanoindentation, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc. Int. Conf. Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, May 1-5, 2006, Surf. Coat. Technol., 201 (2006) 4289-4293.

[198] Assessment of the adhesion of ceramic coatings, J. Chen and S. J. Bull, Proc CIMTEC 2006, Acireale, June 5-9, 2006, Advances in Science and Technology, 45 (2006) 1299-1308.

[199] An overview of the potential for quantitative coating adhesion measurement by scratch testing, S.J. Bull and E.G-Berasetegui, Chapter 7 in “Scratching of Materials and Applications,” Ed. Sujeet K. Sinha, Elsevier Tribology and Interface Engineering Series Volume 51, series editor B.J. Briscoe, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006, pp136-165.

[200] Ge out-diffusion and its effect on electrical properties in s-Si/SiGe devices, S. Uppal, M. Kanoun, S. Chattopadhyay, R. Aigby, S.H. Olsen, S.J. Bull and A.G. O’Neill, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 912 (2006) 65-70.


 

2007

[201] Measurement of mechanical properties of thin films and nanostructured materials at high spatial resolution, S. J. Bull, Proc. Thermec 2006, Vancouver, July 3-7, 2006, Mat. Sci. Forum, 539-543 (2007) 3534-3539.

[202] Hardness measured with traditional Vickers and Martens hardness methods, Shakeel A. Shahdad, John F. McCabe, Steven Bull, Sandra Rusby and Robert W. Wassell, Dental Materials, 23 (2007) 1079-1085.

[203] Getting accurate nanoindentation data from zinc: Time dependent and microstructural effects, R.R. Tohid and S.J. Bull, Int. J. Mat. Res. (Z. Metall.), 98 (2007) 353-359.

[204] Indentation fracture and toughness assessment for thin optical coatings on glass, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, J. Phys. D: Applied Physics, 40 (2007) 5401-5417. Special issue to mark the 25th Anniversary of the IOP Tribology Group.

[205] The influence of loading rate on the nanoindentation response of brittle coated systems, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc Int. Conf. Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, CA, April 24-29, 2007, Thin Solid Films, 516 (2007) 128-135.

[206] A mathematical model of contact deformation for a pinch gripper in automated material handling, Hua Lin, Paul M. Taylor and Steve J. Bull, J. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 46 (2007) 1453-1467.

[207] Strained silicon technology, A.G. O’Neill, S.H. Olsen, E. Escobedo-Cousin, J.B. Varzgar, R. Aigby, S. Chattopadhyay, P.Dobrosz, S. Bull, P.E. Hellstrom, M. Ostling, K. Lyutovich , E. Kaspar, Proc. ICSICT-2006: 2006 8th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology, Proceedings, art. no. 4098033, pp. 104-107 (2007).

[208] Direct measurement of electromigration induced stress in interconnects structures, Christopher J. Wilson, Alton B. Horsfall, Anthony G. O'Neill, Nicholas G. Wright, Steve J. Bull, Jonathan G. Terry, J. Tom M. Stevenson, and Anthony. J. Walton, IEEE Trans Material and Device Reliability, 7 (2007) 356-362.

[209] Multifunctional nanocomposites: Novel materials and potential textile applications, S.J. Bull, in “Nanofibers and nanotechnology in textiles, eds P.J. Brown and K. Stevens, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, (2007) pp256-280. [ISBN 1 84569 105 9].

[210] Thermal stability of super-critical thickness strained Si layers on thin strain-relaxed buffers, E. Escobedo-Cousin, S.H. Olsen, P. Dobrosz, S.J. Bull and A.G. O’Neill, H. Coulson, C. Claeys, R. Loo, R. Delhougne and M. Caymax, J. Appl. Phys., 102 (2007) 123502.

[211] Comparative study of novel barrier layers in ULSI copper interconnects, Kai Wang, Alton Horsfall, Alan Cuthbertson, Steve Bull and Anthony O’Neill, Microelectronic Engineering, 84 (2007) 2486-2490.

[212] Mechanical properties of very thin films and nanostructured materials at high spatial resolution, S. J. Bull, Proc Nanohard 2007, May 14-16, Velingrad, Bulgaria, Eds Roumen Kakanakov and Lilyana Kolaklieva, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Academic Publishing House “Marin Drinov”, Sofia, (2007) pp15-26.

[213] FEM Investigation of the relationship between the work done by indentation and the hardness and Young’s modulus obtained from indentation load-displacement curves, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc. 6th International Conference on Materials Processing for Properties and Performance, Beijing, 14-16 September, 2007 (CD-1107).

[214] Modelling the limits of coating toughness during nanoindentation, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc. 6th International Conference on Materials Processing for Properties and Performance, Beijing, 14-16 September, 2007 (CD-1108).


 

2008

 

[215] Mechanical Analysis and In-situ Structural and Morphological Evaluations of Ni-Sn Alloy Anodes for Li Ion Batteries, J. Chen, S. J. Bull, S. Roy, H. Mukaibo, H. Nara, T. Momma, T. Osaka, and Y. Shacham-Diamand, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41 (2008) 025302.

 

[216] Multicycling nanoindentation study on thin optical coatings on glass, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc. 3rd Int. Indentation Workshop, Cambridge, July16-20, 2007, J.Phys D: Appl. Phys, 41 (2008) 074009.

 

[217] Intentional Polymer Particle Contamination and the Simulation of Adhesion Failure in Transit Scratches in Ultra-Thin Solar Control Coatings on Glass, Krishna J. Belde and S.J. Bull, presented at 10th Int. Symposium on Particles on Surfaces: Detection, Adhesion and Removal, Ed. R. Lacombe, June 19-21, 2006, Toronto, Canada, J. Adhesion Sci. Technol., 22 (2008) 121-132.

 

[218] Analysis of a passive sensor for predicting process induced stress in advanced integrated circuit interconnect, B. J. Gallacher, A. G. O’Neill, S. J. Bull, C Wilson and A. B. Horsfall, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, 8 (2008) 174-181.

 

[219] Nanometer strain profiling through Si/SiGe quantum layers, R.M.B. Agaiby, S.H. Olsen, P. Dobrosz, H. Coulson, S.J. Bull and A.G. O’Neill, J. Appl. Phys., 104 (2008) 013507.

 

[220] Finite element investigation of the relationship between work done during indentation and the hardness and Young’s modulus obtained by indentation testing, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc Nanomech 8, Huckelhoven, September 6-9, 2007, Int. J. Mat. Res. (Z. Metall), 99 (2008) 852-857.


[221] Modelling of indentation damage in single and multilayer coatings and bulk materials, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc IUTAM Symposium on Modelling Nanomaterials and Nanosystems, Ahlborg, 19-22 May 2008, Springer, (2008) pp161-170.

[222] Investigation of the relationship between work done during indentation and the hardness and Young’s modulus obtained by indentation testing, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Proc Nanomech 8, Huckelhoven, September 6-9, 2007, Int. J. Mat. Res. (Z. Metall), 99 (2008) 852-857.

[223] Inorganic Fullerene-like Materials for Increased Operational Life in Rolling/Sliding Applications, Adrian Oila, Steve Bull, and Niles Fleischer, Proc. Tribology 2008, IMechE (2008).


 

2009

[224] Nanoindentation and nanowear study of pure Sn and Sn-Ni alloy films on copper, J. Chen, S. J. Bull, S. Roy, A. Kapoor, H. Mukaibo, H. Nara, T. Momma, T. Osaka and Y. Shacham-Diamand, Tribology Int., 42 (2009) 779-791.

[225] The investigation of creep of electroplated Sn and Ni-Sn on copper at room temperature by nanoindentation, J. Chen and S. J. Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 203 (2009) 1609-1617.

[226] Atomistic simulation of Fe-C Austenite, A. Oila and S.J. Bull, Computational Materials Science, 45 (2009) 235-239.

[227] Finite element analysis of contact induced adhesion failure in multilayer coatings with weak interfaces, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 517 (2009) 3704-3711.

[228] On the Factors affecting the critical indenter penetration for measurement of coating hardness, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, Vacuum, 83 (2009) 911-920.

[229] Relation between the ratio of elastic work to the total work of indentation and the ratio of hardness to Young’s modulus for a perfect conical tip, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, J. Mater. Res., 24 (2009) 590-598.

[230] Nanoscale viscoelastic properties of an aligned collagen scaffold, Bill Chaudry, Holly Ashton, Arif Muhamed, Steve Bull and Daniel Frankel, J. Mat. Sci. Med., 20 (2009) 257-263.

[231] Modelling the limits of coating toughness in brittle coated systems, Jinju Chen and S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 517 (2009) 2945-2952.

[232] Nanoscale strain characterisation for ultimate CMOS and beyond, Sarah H. Olsen, Peter Dobrosz, Rouzet M.B. Agaiby, Yuk Lun Tsang, Olayiwola Alatise, Stephen J. Bull, Anthony O’Neill, Kirsten E. Moselund, Adrian M. Ionescu, Prashant Majhi, Dan Duca, Siegfries Mantl and Howard Coulson, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 11 (2008) 271-278.

[233] Mechanical Modeling of Flexible OLED Devices, Chien-Jung Chiang, Chris Winscom, Steve Bull, Andy Monkman, Proc. 7th International Conference on Electroluminescence of Molecular Materials and Related Phenomena, Dresden, September 2008, Organic Electronics, 10 (2009) 1268-1274.

[234] Experimental and modelling techniques for assessing the adhesion of very thin coatings on glass, Jinju Chen, Zheshuai Lin, S.J. Bull, C. L. Phillips, P. D. Bristowe, J. Phys. D, 42 (2009) 214003.


 

2010

 

[235] Nanomechanical characterisation of tissue-engineered bone grown on titanium alloy in vitro, J. Chen, M.A. Birch, and S.J. Bull, J. Mat. Sci. Med., 21 (2010) 277-282.

[236] Determination of hardness and Modulus of thin films, A.M. Korsunsky and S.J. Bull, Chapter 2 in CRC Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings, Ed S. Zhang, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida (2010) pp35-65.

[237] Simulation of the effect of microstructure on the elastic properties of copper interconnects, C. J. Wilson, A. Oila, L. Sanderson, S. J. Bull, J.-P. Raskin, K. Croes, A. B. Horsfall, A. G. O'Neill, Zs. Tőkei, and G. P. Beyer, Proc. European Workshop on Materials for Advanced Metallisation, Malines, Belgium, 7-10 March, 2010.

[238] Nanomechanics of coatings for electronic and optical applications, S.J. Bull, Proc. Nanohard 2009, Sozopol, May 28-31; Solid State Phenomena, 159 (2010) 11-18.

[239] A Nanoindentation study of the Reduced Elastic Modulus of Alq3 and NPB Thin-film used in OLED Devices, Chien-Jung Chiang, Steve Bull, Chris Winscom, Andy Monkman, Organics Electronics, 11 (2010) 450-455.

[240] Inorganic fullerene-like materials for increased operational life in rolling/sliding applications, Adrian Oila, Lisa Sanderson, Steve Bull and Niles Fleischer, Tribology – Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, 4 (2010) 163-166.

[241] Analysis and characterization of a mechanical sensor to monitor stress in interconnect features, Christopher J. Wilson, Kristof Croes, Zsolt Tokei, Gerald P. Beyer, Barry J. Gallacher, Steve J. Bull, Alton B. Horsfall and Anthony G. O’Neill, Thin Solid Films, 519 (2010) 443-449.

[242] Characterising gate dielectrics in high mobility devices using novel nanoscale techniques , R. Kapoor, E. Escobedo-Cousin, S.H. Olsen and S.J. Bull, Proc. ESREF, 2010, Microelectronics Reliability, 50 (2010) 1484-1487.

 

 


 

2011

[243] Approaches to investigate delamination and interfacial toughness in coated systems: an overview, J. Chen and S.J. Bull, J. Phys. D: Applied Physics, special cluster issue on adhesion and delamination of interfaces, 44 (2011) 034001.

[244] Analysis methods and size effects in the indentation fracture toughness assessment of very thin oxide coatings on glass, S.J. Bull, Comptes Rendus Mecanique Special issue on Surface Mechanics: Facts and Numerical Models, 339 (2011) 518-531.

[245] Determination of the appropriate fracture mechanism for tensile armour wires using micromechanical model-based fracture mechanics, Kazeem K. Adewole, Julia M. Race and Steve J. Bull, Proc AES-ATEMA 2011, Montreal, Canada, August 1-5 (2011), Ed. Y.M. Haddad (ISBN 978-0-9866504-7-5).

[246] Effect of miniature scratches on the tensile properties of flexible pipe tensile armour wires, Kazeem K. Adewole, Julia M. Race and Steve J. Bull, Proc AES-ATEMA 2011, Montreal, Canada, August 1-5 (2011), Ed. Y.M. Haddad (ISBN 978-0-9866504-7-5).

[247] Nanoscale Characterization of Gate Leakage in Strained High Mobility Devices, R. Kapoor, E. Escobedo-Cousin, S.H. Olsen and S.J. Bull, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 58 (2011) 4016-4023.

 


 

2012

 

[248] Critical Review of Claims for Ultra-Hardness in Nanocomposite Coatings, A.C. Fisher-Cripps, S.J. Bull, and N. Schwarzer, Phil. Mag., 92 (2012) 1601-1630.

[249] Mechanical response of ALD alumina coatings on stiff and compliant substrates, S.J. Bull, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A30, (2012) 01A1690. Special issue on ALD (ALD 2011 proceedings). Also available through the Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Volume 25, Issue 3, January 16th 2012.

[250] Surface wear resistance of 304 austenitic stainless steel modified by colossal carbon supersaturation and TiN coating, Fouad B. Abadaia, Steve J. Bull and Adrian Oila, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 2 (2012) 103-111.

[251] Effect of microstructure on hardness of submicrometre thin films and nanostructured devices, S J Bull, L. Sanderson, N. Moharrami and A. Oila, Materials Science and Technology, 28 (2012) 1177-1185: Special issue on hardness testing.

[252] Simulation of the wire reverse bending test, Kazeem K. Adewole and Steve J. Bull, J. Civ. Eng. Constr. Technol., 3 (2012) 116-126.

[253] Scanning probe analysis of dielectrics on high mobility substrates, S.H. Olsen, R. Kapoor and S.J. Bull, Proc. 5th International Symposium on Dielectrics for Nanosystems: Materials Science, Processing, Reliability and Manufacturing - 221st ECS Meeting; Seattle, WA; United States; 6 May 2012 through 10 May 2012; Code 93682, ECS Transactions, 45 (2012) Pages 69-78.

[254] Application of Mechanically Recycled Waste Material: Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP), Ankur Srivastava, Steve Bull and George Ord, Proc. Composites Engineering 2012, 6th November 2012, NEC Birmingham, NETcomposites Ltd, Chesterfield, 2012, pp90-101.

[255] Effect of Miniature Cracks on the Fracture Strength and Strain of Tensile Armour Wires, K. Adewole and S. J. Bull, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 6 (2012) 1-20.

 


 

2013

 

[256] Prediction of the fracture properties of defect-free carbon steel wires using finite element simulation, Kazeem K, Adewole and Steve J, Bull, Construction and Building Materials, 41 (2013) 9-14.

 

[257] The effect of coating properties on residual stress induced delamination in a multilayer coated system, Jinju Chen and S.J. Bull, Nanoscale and Nanotechnology Letters, 5 (2013) 795-800.

 

[258] Bioelectrochemical metal remediation and recovery of Au3+, Co2+ and Fe3+ metal ions, Jeet Varia, Susana Silva Martinez, Sharon Velasquez Orta, Steve Bull, Sudipta Roy, Electrochimica Acta, 95 (2013) 125-131.

 

[259] Integrating the virtuous circle of research with teaching, S.J. Bull, Proc. 2013 International Workshop on Excellent Engineering Education, Danang, Vietnam, 12th September 2013, pp6-10.

 

[260] Why does titanium alloy wear cobalt chrome alloy despite lower bulk hardness: a nanoindentation study?, N. Moharrami, D. Langton, S.J. Bull and O. Sayginer, Thin Solid Films, 549 (2013) 79-86.

 


 

2014

 

 

[261] Nanoindentation measurements of mechanical properties of very thin films and nanostructured materials at high spatial resolution, S. J. Bull, in “Scanning Probe Microscopy for Industrial Applications: Nanomechanical Characterisation,” Ed Dalia G. Yablon, Wiley and Sons, (2014) pp162-189.

 

[262] Microbiological influence of metal ion electrodeposition: studies using graphite electrodes, [AuCl4]- and Shewanella putrefaciens, Jeet Varia, Susana Silva Martinez, Sharon Velasquez Orta, and Steve Bull, Electrochimica Acta, 115 (2014) 334-351.

 

[263] Elastic properties of eta carbide (eta-Fe2C) from ab initio calculations: Application to cryogenically treated gear steel, Adrian Oila, Chi Lung and Steve Bull, J. Mater. Sci., 49 (2014) 2383-2390.

[264] Prediction of tensile and fracture properties of cracked carbon steel wires using finite element simulation, K.K. Adewole and S.J. Bull, J. Civil Engineering and Management, 20 (2014) 159-168.

[265] Effectiveness of the reverse bending and straightening tests in detecting laminations in wires for civil engineering applications, K.K. Adewole and S.J. Bull, Archives of Civil Engineering, 59 (2013) 423-439.

[266] Shewanella putrefaciens for the remediation of Au3+, Co2+ and Fe3+ metal ions from aqueous systems, Jeet Varia, Asfaw Zegeye, Sudipta Roy, Sani Yahaya and Steve Bull, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 85 (2014) 101-109.

[267] Size effects in the mechanical response of nanoscale multilayer coatings on glass, S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 571 (2014) 290-295.

[268] Experimental investigation of the effects of reverse bending and straightening process on carbon steel wires used for civil engineering applications, Kazeem K. Adewole, and S.J. Bull, Civil Engineering Dimension, 16 (2014) 18-23.

[269] A simple method for the assessment of the contact modulus for coated systems, S.J. Bull, Phil. Mag., 95 (2015) 1907-1927. Paper presented at ECI conference on Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development IV, Olhao, October 2013.

[270] Extracting mechanical properties of copper coatings on oxidised silicon substrates by nanoindentation, N. Moharrami, A. Oila and S.J. Bull,J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 47 (2014) 315104.

[271] A Comparison of Nanoindentation Pile-up in Bulk Materials and Thin Films, N. Moharrami and S.J. Bull, Thin Solid Films, 572  (2014) 189-199.

[272]   Numerical Prediction of Differences in Micromechanical Fracture Sequence in Notched and Un-Notched Wires for Civil Engineering Applications.
K.K. Adewole and S.J. Bull, Civil Engineering Dimension, 16 (2014) 87-95.

[273]   Experimental assessment of the elastic properties of thin TiN/AlN superlattice and nano-multilayer coatings, A. Oila and S J Bull, Surf. Coat. Technol., 257 (2014) 87-94.

[274]   Numerical prediction of the effects of miniature channel shaped scratches on the fracture behaviour of wires for civil engineering applications using finite element analysis, K.K. Adewole and S.J. Bull, Archives of Civil Engineering, 60 (2014) 181-194.

 


 

2015

 

[275]   Elastic properties of multilayer oxide coatings on float glass, S.J. Bull, Vacuum, 114 (2015) 150-157. In special issue on oxide coatings.

[276] Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of highly inhomogeneous materials by indentation, Svetlana A. Epshtein, Feodor M. Borodich and Steve J. Bull, Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, 119 (2015) 325-335.

[277] Flexural Characteristics of Tidal turbine blades made of composite materials, H. I. Gonabadi, N. Moharrami, A. Oila and S. J. Bull, Proc. 11th European Wind and Tidal Energy Conference, Nantes, France 6-11 September 2015, paper 08C5-1.

[278] Wet Flexural Fatigue Behaviour of Tidal Turbine Blade Composite Materials, H. I. Gonabadi, N. Moharrami, A. Oila and S. J. Bull, Proc. 11th European Wind and Tidal Energy Conference, Nantes, France 6-11 September 2015, paper 08C5-2.

[279] Modeling the nanomechanical responses of biopolymer composites during the nanoindentation, Pengfei Duan, Steve Bull, and Jinju Chen, Thin Solid Films, 596 (2015) 277-281.

[280] Jackson, P., Guy, J. H., Sturm, B., Bull, S.J. and Edwards, S.A. (2015). Application of process engineering principles to improve the efficiency of resource use in UK pork production chains. In Proceedings of the American Society of Agriculture and Biological Engineers (ASABE), Annual International Meeting, 26th to 29th July 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, paper 152188947.

 

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2016

 

[281] The origins of chemomechanical effects in the low-load indentation hardness and tribology of ceramic materials, Steve J. Bull, Noushin Moharrami, Sarah V. Hainsworth and Trevor F. Page, Special 50th Anniversary Issue, J. Mater. Sci., 51 (2016) 107-125.

 

[282] Finite element failure analysis of wires for civil engineering applications with various crack-like laminations, K.K. Adewole and S.J. Bull, Engineering Failure Analysis, 60 (2016) 229-249.

 

[283] Process analysis of AuCl3– sorption leading to gold nanoparticle synthesis by Shewanella putrefaciens, Jeet Varia, Asfaw Zegeye, Sharon Velasquez, Steve J. Bull, Chemical Engineering Journal, 288 (2016) 482-488.

 

[284] Ion implantation in ceramics, T.F. Page and S.J. Bull, In: Saleem Hashmi (editor-in-chief), Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Elsevier, Oxford, (2016) p1-8.

 

[285] Challenges in assessing the mechanical behaviour of coatings on architectural glass, S.J. Bull, Bull. Am. Ceram Soc., 95 (2016) 24-29.

[286] Fatigue of sandwich composites in air and seawater, H. Izadi Gonabadi, A. Oila and S.J. Bull, J. Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 2 (2016), issue 2, paper 10. DOI: 10.1007/s40735-016-0043-2.

[287] Substrate effects and evaluation of elastic moduli of components of inhomogeneous films by nanoindentation, Elena Kossovich, Feodor M Borodich, Steve J Bull, Svetlana A Epshtein, Thin Solid Films, 619 (2016) 112-119.

 

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2017

 

[288] Antimicrobial and wear performance of novel metallic glass composites, Victor M. Villapún, H. Zhang, C. Howden, L. Cheung Chow, F. Esat, P. Pérez, G. Wells, J. Sort, S. Bull, J. Stach, and S. González., Materials and Design, 115 (2017) 93-102.

[289] Mechanistic study of the wear of ceramic heads by metallic stems in modular implants, S. J. Bull, N. Moharrami, and D. J. Langton, , J. Bio. Tribo-Corrosion, 3 (2017) paper 7.

[290] Application of dynamic thermal engineering principles to improve the efficiency of resource use in UK pork production chains, Paul Jackson, Jonathan Guy, Sandra A. Edwards, Barbara Sturm, Steve Bull, Energy and Buildings, 139 (2017) 53-62.

[291] Tuning the mechanical and antimicrobial performance of a Cu-based metallic glass composite through cooling rate control and annealing, Victor M. Villapún, F. Esat, Steve Bull, L.G. Dover, S Gonzalez, Materials, 10 (2017) 506.

 

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2018

 

[292] Hybrid thermal storage using coil-encapsulated phase change materials, C.P. Underwood, T. Shepherd, S.J. Bull, S. Joyce, Energy and Buildings, 159 (2018) 357-369.

[293] How cell culture conditions affect the microstructure and nanomechanical properties of extracellular matrix formed by immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells: an experimental and modelling study, Pengfei Duan, Ria Toumpaniari, Simon Partridge, Mark A Birch, Paul G Genever, Steve J Bull, Kenneth W Dalgarno, Andrew W McCaskie, Jinju Chen, Mat Sci. Eng. C, 89 (2018) 149-159.

[294] Evaluation of an innovative concept building design incorporating passive technology to improve resource efficiency and welfare of finishing pigs, Paul Jackson, Jonathan Guy, Barbara Sturm, Steve Bull and Sandra Edwards, Biosystems Engineering, in press (2018).

[295] Finite Element Modelling of Nanoindentation Response of Elastic Fibre-Matrix Composites, Pengfei Duan, Yuqing Xia, Steve Bull, and Jinju Chen, J. Mater. Res., in press (2018).

[296] The effect of thin carbon and chemomechanically softened layers on the near-surface mechanical properties of sapphire tested by nanoindentation, S.J. Bull and A. Yadav, Proc. Materials Science and Technology 2018, October 11-14, 2018, Columbus, Ohio, in press (2018).

[297] Optimisation of a throat downdraft gasifier for hydrogen production, Phuet Prasertcharoensuk, David A. Hernandez, Steve Bull and Anh N. Phan, Biomass and Bioenergy, 116 (2018) 216-226.

 

 

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Patents

[1] GB 2 286 347 B, Improved load-bearing polymeric materials, S.J. Bull, A.R. McCabe and A.M. Jones, granted 29/4/1998.

[2] US6096439, Surface treatment of plastics films, S.J. Bull, A.M. Jones and A.R. McCabe, granted 1/8/2000, (EP0688660).


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