HIS 256: GERMANY FROM REICH TO REVOLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY. Nb. this course no longer runs at Newcastle, but this page has been left for the information of those using the German Documents pages

The March to Finchley, December 1750. Click on the picture for more details about the engraving.



1. General Works

1.1 Recommended Purchase

1.2 Germany

1.3 Europe

1.4 Books in German

2. Holy Roman Empire

3. The Habsburg Territories

3.1 General

3.2 1648-1740

3.3 1740-1780

3.4 1780-1790

3.5 Military Affairs

3.6 Socio-Economic

4. Brandenburg-Prussia

4.1 General

4.2 Specialist Works

4.3 Frederick Biographies

5. The Smaller States

6. International Relations

6.1 General

6.2 Habsburg Policy

6.3 The German Soldier Trade

7. The State

7.1 General

7.2 Cameralism and Bureaucracy

7.3 Education

7.4 The Army

8. Territorial Estates

9. Conflict and Protest

10. Society

11. Pietism, Religion and Politics

12. The Thirty Years War and Its Impact

13. Enlightened Absolutism

14. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era


AHR American Historical Review

CEH Central European History

EEQ East European Quarterly

EHQ European History Quarterly

EHR English Historical Review

EcHR Economic History Review

HJ Historical Journal

JEcH Journal of Economic History

JMH Journal of Modern History

P+P Past and Present


1.1 Recommended Purchases

You should consider buying at least ONE of the following:

J. Gagliardo Germany under the old regime 1600-1790, (London, 1991, Longmans)

M. Hughes Early Modern Germany 1477-1806, (London, 1992, Macmillan)

C. Ingrao The Habsburg Monarchy 1618-1815, (Cambridge, 1993, CUP)

J.J. Sheehan German History 1770-1866, (Oxford, 1990, OUP pb. ed. 1993)

1.2 Germany

C.T. Atkinson A History of Germany 1715-1815, (London, 1908) old but contains useful detail

G. Barraclough The Origins of Modern Germany, (revised ed., London, 1988)

F.L. Carsten Essays in German History, (London, 1985) (943CAR)

A. Dorpalen German History in Marxist Perspective, (Detroit, Mich., 1985)

H. Holborn A History of Modern Germany, (3 vols., New York, 1959-69)

A. Ramm Germany 1789-1919, (London, 1967)

R. Vierhaus Germany in the age of absolutism, (Cambridge, 1989) badly translated

New Cambridge Modern History, (12 vols., Cambridge 1957-71) esp. vols. 4 - 8

1.3 Europe

M.S. Anderson Europe in the 18th Century 1713-1783, (3rd ed., London, 1987)

J. Black Eighteenth Century Europe 1700-1789, (London, 1990)

W. Doyle The Old European Order 1660-1800, (2nd ed., Oxford, 1992)

R. Gildea Barricades and borders: Europe 1800-1914, (Oxford, 1987)

H. Kamen European Society 1500-1700, (London, 1984)

T. Munck Seventeenth-Century Europe 1598-1700, (London, 1990)

D.H. Pennington Seventeenth-Century Europe, (2nd ed., London, 1989)

1.4 Books in German

K.O.V. Aretin Das alte Reich 1648-1806 (Stuttgart,

1993) Excellent for imperial institutions.

K.O.V. Aretin Das Reich. Friedensgarantie und europaisches Gleichgewicht 1648-1806, (Stuttgart, 1986)

G. Barudio Das Zeitalter des Absolutismus und der Aufklarung 1648-1797, (Frankfurt, 1981)

H. Boldt Deutsche Verfassungsgeschiahte

Vol.I (Munich, 1990) (943 BOL)

C. Dipper Deutsche Geschichte 1648-1789, (Frankfurt/M., 1991) good on socio-economic issues

H. Duchhardt Deutsche Verfassungsgeschiahte 1495-1806 (Stuttgart, 1991)

M. Erbe Deutsche Geschichte 1713-1790 (Stuttgart, 981) (943.05 ERB) good on individual territories

J. Kunisch Absolutismus, (Gottingen, 1986) covers Europe but with a strong emphasis on Germany

H. Moller Furstenstaat oder Burgernation Deutschland 1763-1815, (Berlin, 1989)

V. Press Kriege und Krisen: Deutschland 1600-1715, (Munich, 1991)

H. Schilling Hofe und Allianzen: Deutschland 1648-1763, (Berlin, 1989)


The following focus on the institutions, structure and historiography of the Empire.

T.C.W. Blanning `Empire and State in Germany 1648-1848', German History, 12, (1994), 220-36 historiographical essay

F.L. Carsten `The Empire after the Thirty Years War', New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 5 (Cambridge, 1961)

J.G. Gagliardo Reich and Nation: The Holy Roman Empire as idea and reality 1763-1806, (Bloomington Ind., 1980)

H. Gross Empire and sovereignty. A history of the public law literature in the Holy Roman Empire, 1599-1804, (Chicago/London, 1973)

F. Heer The Holy Roman Empire (London, 1968) rather descriptive

M. Hughes Law and politics in 18th century Germany: The Imperial Aulic Council in the reign of Charles VI< (Woodbridge, 1988)

----- `Fiat justitia, pereat Germania? The Imperial Supreme jurisdiction and imperial reform in the Later Holy Roman Empire', in J. Breuilly (ed.), The State of Germany, (Harlow, 1992), pp.29-46

JHM, 58, (1986) Supplement - special issue on The Holy Roman Empire

G. Strauss `The Holy Roman Empire revisited', CEH, 11, (1978), 290-301 review article

J.A. Vann The Swabian Kreis. Institutional growth in The Holy Roman Empire 1648-1715, (Brussels, 1975)

------/S.W. Rowan (eds.) The Old Reich 1495-1806, (Brussels 1975)

R. Wines `The imperial circles, princely diplomacy and imperial reform 1681-1714', JMH, 39, (1967), 1-29


3.1 General

C.W. Ingrao The Habsburg Monarchy 1618-1815, (Cambridge, 1994) - best general survey and starting point for all issues relating to the Habsburgs

J. Berenger A History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700, (Harlow, 1994)

R.J.W. Evans The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy 1550-1700. An interpretation (Oxford, 1977) very good on the Counter-Reformation era and on Habsburg culture generally

----- 'The Habsburg monarchy and Bohemia 1526-1848' in M. Greengrass (ed) Conquest and Coalescence (London, 1991), pp. 134-54 useful for territorialization

C.W. Ingrao (ed.) The State and Society in Early Modern Austria, (W. Lafayette, Ind., 1994) essays covering 16th and 18th centuries

R.A. Kann A History of The Habsburg Empire 1526-1918, (London/Berkeley, 1974) better than Tapie

-----/Z. David The peoples of the Eastern Habsburg lands 1526-1918, (Seattle, 1984) focuses on Bohemia, Hungary and Galicia

C.A. MaCartney The Habsburg Empire 1790-1918, (New York, 1968)

R. Okey The Habsburg Monarchy 1780-1918, (Basingstoke, 1995)

J.P. Spielman The City and the Crown: Vienna, (W. Lafayette, Ind., 1993) useful for the court

V-L. Tapie The rise and fall of the Habsburg monarchy, (New York, 1971)

E. Wangemann The Austrian Achievement 1700-1800, (London, 1973) good on society and culture

3.2 1648-1740 (Leopold I, Joseph I, Charles VI)

T.M. Barker Double eagle and crescent: Vienna's second Turkish siege and its historical setting, (Albany N.Y., 1967)

L. & M. Frey The question of empire: Leopold I and the War of Spanish Succession 1701-5, (New York, 1983)

C.W. Ingrao In quest and crisis. Emperor Joseph I and the Habsburg monarchy, W. Lafayette, Ind., 1974) Takes a rather negative view of Joseph

D. McKay Prince Eugene of Savoy, (London, 1977) useful for foreign policy, military affairs and political intrigue

J. Miller (ed.) Absolutism in 17th century Europe, (London, 1990) ch.6 on Leopold I

J.P. Spielman Leopold I of Austria, (London, 1977)

J.W. Stoye The Siege of Vienna, (London, 1964)

----- `Emperor Charles VI: The early years of his reign', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, vol. 12, (1962)

3.3 1740-80 (Maria Theresia)

D. Beales Joseph II: Vol. I In the Shadow of Maria Theresa 1741-80, (Cambridge, 1986)

-----/T.C.W. Blanning 'Prince Kaunitz and the "primacy of domestic policy"', International History Review, 2, (1980), 619-24

E. Crankshaw Maria Theresa, (London, 1969)

P.G.M. Dickson Finance and government under Maria Theresa 1740-1780, (2 vols., Oxford, 1987)

G.P. Gooch Maria Theresa and other studies (London, 1951)

W. McGill Maria Theresa, (New York, 1972)

-----(ed) The Habsburg dominions under Maria Theresa, (Washington, 1980)

C.A. MaCartney Maria Theresa and the House of Austria, (London, 1969)

R. Pick Empress Maria Theresa: The earlier years 1717-1757, (New York, 1966)

F.A.J. Szabo Kaunitz and enlightened absolutism 1753-1780, (Cambridge, 1994) very good on Austrian domestic reforms

3.4 1780-90 (Joseph II)

P.P. Bernard The limits of enlightenment: Joseph II and the Law (Urban/London, 1979)

T.C.W. Blanning Joseph II (Harlow, 1994)

----- Joseph II and enlightened absolutism, (London, 1970)

G. Klingenstein, `Revisions of enlightened absolutism', HJ, 33 (1990) 155-67

P.G.M. Dickson 'Monarchy and bureaucracy in late eighteenth-century Austria', EHR, 110 (1995), 323-67

3.5 Military Affairs

See also the titles by Dickson (Section 3.3) for war finance, and Komlos (Section 3.6) for personnel and recruitment.

C. Duffy The army of Maria Theresa: The armed forces of Imperial Austria 1740-1780, (2nd ed., 1990)

J. Mears `The Thirty Years War, the "General Crisis" and the Origins of a standing army in The Habsburg Monarchy' CEH, 21, (1988)

G.E. Rothenberg The Austrian military border in Croatia 1522-1747, (Urbana, 1960)

----- The military border in Croatia 1740-1881, (Chicago, 1966)

3.6 Socio-Economic

See also relevant sections of works in Sections 3.1 - 3.4 esp. Dickson Vol. I

H. Freudenberger `State intervention as an obstacle to economic growth in the Habsburg monarchy' JEcH, 27, (1967), 493-509

----- `An industiral mementum in the Habsburg monarchy', JEcH, 12 (1983)

----- `The woollen goods industry of the Habsburg monarchy in the 18th century' JEcH, 20 (1960)

----- `Industrialization in Bohemia and Moravia in the 18th century', J. of Central European Affairs, 19 (1960)

D. Good The economic rise of the Habsburg empire 1750-1914, (London, 1984), Ch.1

A. Klima `The role of rural domestic industry in Bohemia in the 18th century', EcH.R, 2nd series, 27 (1974)

----- `Agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial Bohemia', P + P, 85 (1979)

----- `Industrial development in Bohemia 1648-1781', P + P, 11, (1957)

----- `Industrial growth and entrepreneurship in the early stages of industrialization in the Czech lands', JEcH, 6 (1977)

J. Komlos Nutrition and economic development in the 18th century Habsburg monarchy, (Princeton, 1990) see also his summary in AHR, 90, (1985), 1149-61

----- `Institutional change under pressure: Enlightened government policy in the 18th century Habsburg monarchy' J. European Economic History, 15, (1986)

J.R. Lampe/M.R. Jackson Balkan economic history 1550-1950, (Bloomington, Ind., 1982) covers Hungary

E. Link The emancipation of the Austrian peasantry 1740-1798, (New York, 1949, reprint 1974)

W. McCagg A history of the Habsburg Jews 1670-1918, (Bloomington, Ind., 1989)

A. Maczak et al. East Central Europe in transition from the 14th to the 17th century, (Cambridge, 1985)

W.E. Wright Serf, Seigneur and Sovereign: Agrarian reform in 18th century Bohemia, (Minneapolis, 1966)


4.1 General

F.L. Carsten The origins of Prussia, (Oxford, 1954) to 1688

S.B. Fay The rise of Brandenburg-Prussia to 1786, (2nd ed., New York, 1964)

E.J. Feuchtwanger Prussia: myth and reality, (London, 1970)

German History special issue October 1994 `Prussia from Rossbach to Jena'

H.W. Koch A history of Prussia (London, 1978)

O.C. Mitchell A concise history of Brandenburg-Prussia to 1786, (Lanham, Md., 1980)

R.V. Thadden Prussia: The history of a lost state, (Cambridge, 1987)

4.2 Specialist Works

P. Baumgart 'The annexation and integration of Silesia into the Prussian state of Frederick the Great' in M. Greengrass (ed) Conquest and Coalescence (London, 1991) pp 155-81

C.B.A. Behrens Society, government and enlightenment: the experience of 18th century France and Prussia, (London, 1985)

R.M. Berdahl The politics of the Prussian nobility: the development of a conservative ideology 1770-1848, (Princeton, 1988)

----- `The Stande and the origins of conservatism in Prussia', Eighteenth-Century Studies, 6, (1973), 298-321

F.L. Carsten A History of the Prussian Junkers (London, 1989)

----- `Prussian despotism at its height', History, 40, (1955) 42-67 (also in Carsten, Essays in German History [1985] pp.145ff)

----- `The Great Elector and the foundation of Hohenzollern despotism', EHR, 65, (1950), 175-202

W.L. Dorn `The Prussian brueaucracy in the 18th century', Political Science Quarterly, 46 (1931), 403-34; 47 (1932), 75-94

R.A. Dorwart The Prussian Welfare State before 1740, (Cambridge, Mass., 1971)

----- The administrative reforms of Frederick William I of Prussia (Camb., Mass., 1953)

B.M. Downing The military revolution and political change, (Princeton, 1992), ch.4 covers war, state building and Prussian absolutism

C. Duffy The army of Frederick the Great, (Newton Abbot, 1974)

R.R. Ergang The Potsdam Fuhrer: Frederick William I, father of Prussian militarism (New York, 1941), More balanced than its title suggests

L. & M. Frey Frederick I: The man and his times (New York, 1984). A not entirely successful attempt to rehabilitate Fred I

W.W. Hagen `Working for the Junker: the standard of living of manorial labourers in Brandenburg 1584-1810', JMH, 58, (1986), 143-58

----- `The Junkers' faithless servants: peasant insubordination and the breakdown of serfdom in Brandenburg-Prussia 1763-1811' in R.J. Evans/W.R. Lee (eds.), The German Peasantry, (London, 1985), 77-86

----- `Seventeenth-century crisis in Brandenburg: The Thirty Years War, the destabilization of serfdom and the rise of absolutism', AHR, 94, (1989), 302-35

W.O. Henderson Studies in the economic policy of Frederick the Great, (London, 1963)

----- The state and industrial reform in Prussia 1740-1870, (Liverpool, 1958)

H.C. Johnson Frederick the Great and his officials, (New Haven, 1975)

J. Miller (ed.) Absolutism in 17th century Europe, (London, 1990) article by H.W. Koch is useful for state-building issues

H. Rosenberg `The rise of the Junkers in Brandenburg-Prussia', AHR, 49, (1943), 1-22

----- Bureaucracy, aristocracy and autocracy: the Prussian experience 1660-1815, (Cambridge, Mass., 1958)

F. Schevill The Great Elector, (Chicago, 1947)

4.3 Frederick Biographies

R.B. Asprey Frederick the Great: the magnificent enigma, (New York, 1986) concentrates mainly on Warfare

T. Carlyle History of Fredrich II of Prussia, called Frederick the Great, 10 vols., (London, 1870-71) highly idiosyncratic, more a literary work than a historical study, but often conveying a great sense of atmosphere

C. Duffy Frederick the Great: A Military Life, (London, 1985) the best study of these aspects and a very good read

E. Eyck `Frederick the Great', in R.F. Hopwood (ed.), Germany: People and Politics 1750-1945, (London, 1968), pp.42-56

G.P. Gooch Frederick the Great. The ruler, the writer, the man, (London, 1947) concentrates mainly on his philosophical activities

W. Hubatsch Frederick the Great: Absolutism and Administration, (London, 1975) useful for the development of the Prussian state and post 1763 reforms

N. Mitford Frederick the Great, (London, 1970) gossipy, entertaining and lavishly illustrated

G. Ritter Frederick the Great. A Historical Profile, (London, 1968) A conservative viewpoint first published in 1936

E. Sagarra `The image of Frederick II of Prussia in Germany in the century before unification', European Studies Review, 4, (1974)

H.M. Scott (ed) Enlightened Absolutism, (London, 1990) incisive article by T.C.W. Blanning

E. Simon The Making of Frederick the Great, (Boston, 1963) psychological study of the King's early years


G. Benecke Society and politics in Germany 1500-1750, (London/Toronto, 1974) covers the Westphalian territories

T.C.W. Blanning Reform and Revolution in Mainz 1743-1803, (Cambridge, 1974)

W.H. Bruford Culture and Society in Classical Weimar 1775-1806, (Cambridge, 1962)

F.L. Carsten Princes and parliaments in Germany from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, (Oxford, 1959)

U. Dann Hanover and Britain 1740-1760, (Leicester, 1991)

A. Fauchier-Magnan The Small German Courts in The 18th Century, (London, 1958) Mainly on Wurttemberg. Gossipy and not entirely reliable.

T.J. Glas-Hochstettler `The Imperial Knights in post-Westphalian Mainz: A case study of corporatism in the Old Reich', CEH, 11, (1978), 131-49

R. Hatton George I, elector and king, (London, 1978)

A. Hofmeister-Hunger `Provincial political culture in the Holy Roman Empire: The Franconian Margraviates of Ansbach and Bayreuth' in E. Hellmuth (ed), The transformation of political culture, (Oxford, 1990), pp.149-64

M. Hughes Law and politics in 18th century Germany, (Woodbridge, 1988) for Mecklenburg and East Frisia

C.W. Ingrao The Hessian mercenary state. Ideas, institutions and reform under Frederick II 1760-85, (Cambridge, 1985)

W. Janner Jr., `"Das Liebe Teutschland" in the17th century - Count George Frederick von Waldeck', European Studies Review, 6, (1976), 165-95

J.B. Knudsen Justus Moser and the German enlightenment (Cambridge, 1986) has some information on Osnabruck

A.v Reden-Dohna `Problems of small estates of the Empire: the example of the Swabian Imperial Prelates', JMH 58 (1986) supplement 76-87

P.K. Taylor Indentured to liberty. Peasant life and the Hessian military state 1688-1815, (Ithaca, 1994)

R.H. Thompson Lothar Franz von Schonborn and the diplomacy of the Electorate of Mainz, (The Hague, 1974)

J.A. Vann The making of a state: Wurttemberg 1593-1793, (Ithaca, 1984)

P.H. Wilson War, State and Society in Württemberg 1677-1793, (Cambridge, 1995)


6.1 General

Sections 3, 4, 5 and 13 also contain useful material. The articles by Press and Duchhardt in Ingrao (ed.), State and Society (see Section

3.1) give good coverage of the whole Reich.

M.S. Anderson The War of the Austrian Succession 1740-1748, (London, 1995)

A.M. Birke/K. Kluxen (eds) England and Hanover, (Munich, 1986) (941.07 ENG)

J. Black `The problems of the small state: Bavaria and Britain in the second quarter of the 18th century', EHQ, 19 (1989), 5-36

T.C.W. Blanning "That horrid electorate" or Ma patrie Germanique"? George III, Hanover and the Furstenbund of 1785', HJ, 20 (1977), 311-44

C. Brinkmann `Charles II and the Bishop of Munster in the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665-6', EHR, 21, (1906)

R. Browning `The Duke of Newcastle and the Imperial election plan 1749-1754', Journal of British Studies, 7, (1967/8), 28-47

U. Dann Hanover and Britain 1740-1760, (Leicester, 1991)

H. Dippel `Prussia's England policy after the Seven Years War', CEH, 4, (1971), 195-214

P.F. Doran Andrew Mitchell and Anglo-Prussian diplomatic relations during the Seven Years War, (New York/London, 1986)

L. & M. Frey `The foreign policy of Frederick I: A fatal vacillation', EEQ, 9, (1975), 256-69

----- `The Anglo-Prussian Treatry of 1704', Canadian J. of History, 9, (1976), 283-94

R.M. Hatton The Anglo-Hanoverian connection, (London, 1982)

----- George I, elector and King, (London, 1978)

----- (ed) Louis XIV and Europe (London, 1976) a good collection of articles essential for understanding Franco-German relations

D.B. Horn `Saxony in the War of the Austrian Succession', EHR, 44, (1929), 33-47

----- Sir Charles Hanbury Williams and European diplomacy 1747-58, (London, 1930)

----- Britain and Europe in the 18th Century, (Oxford, 1967)

----- `The origins of the proposed election of a king of the Romans 1748-50', EHR, 42, (1927), 361-70

----- `The cabinet controversy over subsidy treaties in time of peace 1749-50', EHR, 45, (1930), 463-6

R. Lodge Britain and Prussia in the 18th century, (Oxford, 1923)

----- Studies in 18th century diplomacy 1740-1748, (London, 1930) on the War of the Austrian Succession

----- `The Continental policy of Britain 1740-1760', History, 16, (1932)

----- `The Treaty of Worms [1743]', EHR, 44, (1920), 220-55

----- `The so-called "Treaty of Hanau" of 1743', EHR, 38, (1923), 384-407

----- `Russia, Prussia and Britain 1742-4', EHR, 38, (1923), 209-31

D. McKay 'Small-power diplomacy in the age of Louis XIV: the foreign policy of the Great Elector during the 1660s and 1670s', in R. Oresko (ed), Royal and republican sovereignty (Cambridge, 1997) (940 ROY) pp.188-215

W. Mediger `Britain, Hanover and the rise of Prussia', in R.M. Hatton/M.S. Anderson (eds.), Studies in diplomatic history, (London, 1970)

J.T. O'Connor `William Egon von Furstenberg, German agent in the service of Louis XIV', French Historical Studies, 5, (1967), 119-45

----- Negotiator out of Season (Athens, 1975)

R. Place 'Bavaria and the collapse of Louise XIV's German policy 1687-1688', JMH, 49 (1977), 369-93

K.W. Schweizer England, Prussia and the Seven Years War, (Lewiston, N.Y., 1989)

D.E. Shownlter The Wars of Frederick the Great (London, 1996) (943.053 FRE[sho])

R.H. Thompson Lothar Franz von Schönborn and the diplomacy of the Electorate of Mainz (The Hague, 1973) a very useful 17th century case study

6.2 Habsburg Policy

P.P. Bernard Joseph II and Bavaria: Two 18th Century attempts at German Unification, (The Hague, 1965) despite the misleading title, a sound study of the Netherlands-Bavaria exchange scheme.

----- 'Austria's last Turkish War', Austrian History Yearbook, 19/20 (1983/4), 15-31

L. Cassels The struggle for the Ottoman Empire 1717-1740, (London, 1966) entertaining account of Austrian Balkan policy

L. & M. Frey A question of empire. Leopold I and the War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1705, (East European Monographs CLXVI, Boulder, 1983)

C.W. Ingrao `Habsburg strategy and geopolitics during the 18th century', in G.E. Rothenburg/B. Kiraly (eds), War and Society in East Central Europe, vol.II, (New York, 1982)

H. Kaplan The first partition of Poland, (New York, 1972)

I. Parvev Habsburgs and Ottomans. Between Vienna and Belgrade (1683-1739) (Boulder, 1995)

K. Roider The reluctant ally: Austria's policy in the Austro Turkish War 1737-1739, (Baton Rouge, 1972)

----- Austria's eastern question, (Princeton, 1982)

K.M. Setton Venice, Austria and the Turks in the 17th century, (American Philosophical Society, 1991)

J. Stoye The siege of Vienna, (New York, 1965)

6.3 The German Soldier Trade

See also the titles by D.B. Horn in The International Relations Section

6.1. For an overview of the literature on this subject see Wilson, War,

State and Society, ch.3.

R. Atwood The Hessians: Mercenaries from Hessen-Kassel in the American Revolution, (Cambridge, 1980)

J. Black `Parliament and foreign policy in the age of Walpole: the case of Hessians' in Black (ed), Knights errant and the Englishmen 1660-1800, (Edinburgh, 1989) pp.41-54

R. Browning `The Duke of Newcastle and the financial management of the Seven Years War in Germany', JSAHR, 49, (1971), 20-35

C.W. Ingrao The Hessian mercenary state 1760-1785, (Cambridge, 1987)

----- `"Barbarous strangers": Hessian state and society during the American Revolution', AHR, 87, (1982), 954-76

D. Kaiser Politics and war. European conflict from Philip II to Hitler, (London, 1990) pp.139-202 covers French, Dutch and British subsidy policy 1661-1715

J. McCormack One million mercenaries: Swiss soldiers in the armies of the world, (London, 1993)

F. Redlich The German military enterprizer and his workforce, vol. 2, (Wiesbaden, 1965)

R. Savory `Jeffrey Amherst conducts the Hessians to England 1756', JSAHR, 49, (1971), 122-81

H.D. Schmidt `The Hessian mercenaries: the career of a political cliche', History, 43, (1958) 206-12

P.K. Taylor Indentured to liberty. Peasant life and the Hessian military state 1688-1815, (Ithaca, 1994)


See also sections 3, 4 and 5 for individual states. Titles by Fulbrook and Po Chia Hsia in Section 11 are also useful. See Section 9 for works on the limits to state power. Section 12 covers effects it reforms.

7.1 General

P. Bernard From the Enlightenment to the police state: the public life of Johann Anton Pergen, (Urbana, 1991) on the founder of the Austrian secret police

P. Burke The fabrication of Louis XIV, (New Haven, 1992) esp. ch.11 on court culture and absolutist display

R. van Dülmen Theatre of horror. Crime and punishment in early modern Germany, (Cambridge, 1990)

R.J. Evans Rituals of retribution. Capital punishment in Germany 1600-1987 (Oxford, 1996)

G. Oestreich Neostoicism and the early modern state, (Cambridge, 1982)

T. Robisheaux `Peasants and pastors: rural youth control and the Reformation in Hohenlohe 1540-1680', Social History, 6, (1981), 281-300

J. Stroup The struggle for identity in the clerical estate, (Leiden, 1984) on the resistance of enlightened clergy in Hanover and Brunswick to absolutism.

K.H. Wegert `Contention and civility: the state and social control in the German South West 1760-1850', HJ 34 (1991), 349-69

P.C. Witt (ed) Wealth and taxation in central Europe, (Leamington Spa, 1987)

7.2 Cameralism and Bureaucracy

H-J. Braun `Economic theory and policy in Germany 1750-1800', J. European Economic History, 4, (1975), 301-22

H.C. Johnson `The concept of bureaucracy in cameralism', Political Science Quarterly, 79, (1964), 378-402

H.P. Liebel Enlightened bureaucracy versus enlightened despotism in Baden 1750-92, (Philadelphia, 1965)

K. Tribe `Cameralism and the science of government', JMH, 56, (1984), 263-84

M. Raeff The well-ordered police state, (London/New Haven, 1983) compares Germany and Russia. See also his article in AHR 80, (1975), 1221-43

P.H. Smith The Business of Alchemy. Science and culture in the Holy Roman Empire (Princeton, 1994) Despite its title, this is in fact a biography of the leading cameralist Johann Joachim Becher (1635-82)

M. Walker `Rights and functions: the social categories of 18th century German jurists and cameralists' JMH, 50, (1978), 234-51

7.3 Education

A.J. LaVopa Prussian school teachers: profession and office 1763-1848, (Chapel Hill, 1980)

C. McClelland State, society and university in Germany 1700-1914, (Cambridge, 1980)

----- `The aristocracy and university reform in 18th century Germany', in L. Stone (ed), Schooling and social studies in the history of education, (Baltimore, 1976)

P. Petschauer The education of women in 18th century Germany, (Lewiston, N.Y., 1989)

K. Schteunes Schooling and society: the politics of education in Prussia and Bavaria 1750-1900, (New York, 1989) concentrates on the 19th century but has good overview of 18th century

J. Van Horn Melton Absolutism and the 18th century origins of compulsory schooling in Prussia and Austria (Cambridge, 1988) shows how government plans to use education as an instrument of social control did not always work

7.4 The Army

See also sections on the soldier trade (6.3), Prussia (4.2) and Austria (3.5)

O. Büsch Military system and social life in old regime Prussia 1713-1807 (Atlantic Highlands, 1997) (355.00943 BUS)

G. Craig The politics of the Prussian army 1640-1945, (Oxford, 1964)

M. Kitchen A military history of Germany, Bloomington, 1975)

G. Ritter The sword and the scepter, (4 vols., Miami, 1969)


R.G. Asch `Estates and Princes after 1648: the consequences of the Thirty Years War', Germ. Hist., 6, (1988), 13-32

R.M. Berdahl `The Stande and the origins of conservatism in Prussia' , Eighteenth Century Studies, 6, (1973), 298-321

F.L. Carsten Princes and parliaments in Germany, (Oxford, 1959)

----- 'The causes of the decline of the German estates' in Carsten Essays in German History (London, 1985) pp. 119-26

R.J.W. Evans/T.V. Thomas (eds) Crown, church and estates (New York, 1991) (943 CRO) esp. Ch.1 is a good introduction to the topic

S. King-Hall/R.K. Ullmann German parliaments (London, 1954) (943 KIN) Ch. 2 dated but brief overview

M. Levy Governance and grievance: Habsburg policy and Italian Tyrol in the 18th century, (West Lafayette, Ind., 1988)

C. Muller The Styrian estates in transition 1740-1848, (New York, 1982)

M. Walker Johann Jakob Moser and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Notion (Chapel Hill, 1981) very useful especially for Würtemberg

P.H. Wilson `The power to defend or the defence of power: the conflict between duke and estates over defence provision, Wurttemberg, 1677-1793' Parliaments, Estates and Representation, 12, (1992), 25-45

----- War, State and Society in Wüttemberg 1677-1793, (Cambridge, 1995) esp. ch.2


C.R. Friedrichs `German town revolts and the 17th century crisis', Renaissance and modern studies, 26, (1982), 27-51 with details of 30 urban conflicts 1580-1700

C.R. Friedrichs `Urban conflicts and the imperial constitution in 17th century Germany', JMH, 58, (1986) supplement 98-123

----- `Urban politics and urban social structures in 17th century Germany', EHQ, 22, (1992), 187-216

----- `Politics or pogrom? The Fettmilch uprising in Germany and Jewish history', CEH, 19, (1986), 186-228 on conflict in Frankfurt 1612-14

H. Gabel/S. Schule `Peasant resistance and politicization in Germany in the 18th century', in E. Hellmuth (ed), The transformation of political culture, (Oxford, 1990), 119-46

D. Sabean `The communal basis of pre-1800 peasant uprisings in Western Europe', Comparative Politics, 8, (1975/76), 355-64

G.L. Soliday A community in conflict: Frankfurt society in the 17th and early 18th centuries, (Hanover, N.H., 1974)

M. Walker German home towns, (Ithaca, 1971)

P.H. Wilson `Violence and the rejection of authority in 18th century Germany', German History, 12, (1994), 1-26


G. Benecke `Ennoblement and privilege in early modern Germany' History, (Oct., 1971), 360-70

W.H. Bruford Germany in the 18th century: the social background of the literary revival, (Cambridge, 1935)

R. van Dülmen The society of the Enlightenment. The rise of the middle class and enlightened culture in Germany, (Cambridge, 1992)

H. Fenske `International migration: Germany in the 18th century', CEH, 13, (1980), 332-47

C.R. Friedrichs Urban society in an age of war: Nordlingen 1580-1720, (Princeton, 1979)

----- The early modern city 1450-1750, (London, 1995)

J. Gagliardo From pariah to patriot: the changing image of the German peasant 1770-1840, (Lexington, 1969)

H. Kisch `The textile industries in Silesia and the Rhineland: a comparative study in industrialization', JEcH, 19, (1959), 541-64

H.P. Liebel `The bourgeoisie in South West Germany 1500-1789: a rising class?', International Review of Social History, 10, (1965), 283-307

M. Lindemann Patriots and paupers. Hamburg 1712-1830 (New York, 1990)

A. Menhennet Order and freedom: literature and society in Germany from 1720-1805, (1973)

C. Mooers The making of bourgeois Europe. Absolutism, revolution and the rise of capitalism in England, France and Germany, (London, 1991)

G.W. Pedow The survival of the Hessian nobility 1770-1870, (Princeton, 1988)

T. Robisheaux Rural society and the search for order in early modern Germany, (Cambridge, 1989) on Hohenlohe

S. Ogilvie/R. Scribner (eds) A new social and economic history of Germany, (2 vols., London, 1996) The essential starting point for all social questions.

D.W. Sabean Power in the blood. Popular culture and village discourse in early modern Germany, (Cambridge, 1984), on Wurttemberg

----- Property, production and family in Neckarhausen, 1700-1870 (Cambridge, 1990)

E. Sagarra A social history of Germany 1648-1914, (London, 1977)

H.M. Scott (ed.) The European nobilities in the 17th and 18th centuries, vol. II, (Harlow, 1994)

J.C. Theibault German villages in crisis. Rural life in Hesse-Kassel and the Thirty Years War 1580-1720 (Atlantic Highlands NJ., 1995) (943.41 THE)

O. Ulbricht 'The world of a beggar around 1775: Johann Gottfried Kästner', CEH, 27 (1994), 153-84

M. Walker German home towns: community, state and general estate 1648-1871, (Ithaca/London, 1971) good on communal or `home town' mentality

J. Whaley Religious toleration and social change in Hamburg 1529-1819, (Cambridge, 1985)


M.R. Forster The Counter-Reformation in the villages: Religion and reform in the Bishopric of Speyer 1560-1720, (Ithaca/London, 1992) (282.4343 FOR)

M. Fulbrook `Religion, revolution and absolutist rule in Germany and England', European Studies Review, 12, (1982), 301-21

----- Piety and politics: religion and the rise of absolutism in England, Wurttemberg and Prussia, (Cambridge, 1983)

R.L. Gawthrop Pietism and the making of 18th century Prussia, (Cambridge, 1993)

R. Po Chia Hsia Social discipline in the Reformation: Central Europe 1550-1750, (London, 1989)

M. Scharfe `The distance between the lower classes and official religion: examples from 18th century Wurttemberg Protestantism' in K.V. Greyerz (ed), Religion and Society in early modern Europe 1500-1800, (London, 1984) pp.157-74 on sepratist resistance to the official territorial church

P.M. Soergel Wondrous in his saints. Counter Reformation propaganda in Bavaria (Berkeley, 1993)

K.J. Stein Philipp Jacob Spener: Pietist patriarch, (Chicago, 1986)

F.E. Stoeffler German pietism during the 18th century, (Leiden, 1973)

P.G. Wallace Communities and conflict in early modern Colmar 1575-1730, (Atlantic Highlands, N.J., 1995) on confessionalization in an Alsatian Imperial City that passed to France in 1673 (944.3833 WAL)

J. Whaley Religious toleration and social change in Hamburg 1529-1819, (Cambridge, 1985)


R.G. Asch `Estates and princes after 1648: the consequences of the Thirty Years War', German History, 6, (1988), 113-32

G. Benecke `The problem of death and destruction in Germany in the Thirty Years War', European Studies Review, 2, (1972), 239-53

H. Kamen `The economic and social consequences of the Thirty Years War', P + P, 39, (1968), 44-61

H. Langer The Thirty Years War, (Poole, 1980)

D. Ludloft `Industrial development in 16th and 17th century Germany', P + P, 12, (1957), 58-73

G. Nichols `The Economic impact of the Thirty Years War in Habsburg Austria', EEQ, 23, (1989)

S.C. Ogilvie `Germany and the 17th century crisis', HJ, 35, (1992). Introduces the debates and provides a good starting point.

G. Parker The Thirty Years War, (London, 1987)

J. Theibault German villages in crisis. Rural life in Hesse-Kassel and the Thirty Years War, 1580-1720, (Atlantic Highlands, N.J., 1995)

T.K. Rabb `The effects of the Thirty Years War on the German economy', JMH, 34, (1962), 40-51


See also sections 3.3, 3.4, 4.3, and 5

P. Bernard Jesuits and Jacobins: Enlightenment and enlightened despotism in Austria, (Urbana, 1971)

H. Brunschwig Enlightenment and romanticism in 18th century Prussia, (Chicago, 1974, 1st 1947)

H. Dippel Germany and the American Revolution, (transl., B. Uhlendorf, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1977)

K. Epstein The genesis of German conservatism, (Princeton, 1966) despite its title, it covers the impact of the Enlightenment

J.G. Gagliardo Enlightened despotism, (London, 1968) somewhat dated

F. Hertz The development of the German public mind, Vol. II: The Enlightenment, (London, 1962)

C.W. Ingrao `Enlightened absolutism and the German States', JMH, 58, (1986)

J.K. Knudsen Justus Moser and the German Enlightenment, (Cambridge, 1986)

J.V.H. Melton `From Enlightenment to Revolution: Hertzberg, Schlozer and the problem of despotism in the late Aufklarung', (EH, 12, (1979), 103-23

H.B. Nisbet `"Was ist Aufklarung": the concept of Enlightenment in 18th century Germany', J. European Studies, 12, (1982), 77-95

G. Parry `Enlightened government and its critics in 18th century Germany', HJ, 6, (1963)

R. Porter The Enlightenment, (London, 1989)

------/M. Teich (eds) The Enlightenment in national context, (Cambridge, 1981), esp. pp.106-17

H.M. Scott (ed.) Enlightened absolutism, (London, 1990) essential reading

----- `Whatever happened to the enlightened despots?', History, 68, (1983), 245-57


E.N. Anderson Nationalism and the cultural crisis in Prussia 1806-1815, (New York, 1939)

R. Aris History of political thought in Germany from 1789-1815, (London, 1936)

F.C. Beiser (ed) The early writings of the German Romantics (Cambridge, 1996)

R.M. Berdahl `New thoughts on German Nationalism', AHR, 77, (1972), 65-80

G. Best (ed.) The permanent revolution: The French Revolution and its legacy, (1988)

S.S. Biro The German policy of revolutionary France, (2 vols., Cambridge Mass., 1957) contains some inaccuracies

T.C.W. Blanning The French Revolution in Germany: occupation and resistance in the Rhineland 1792-1802, (Oxford, 1983)

----- The origins of the French Revolutionary Wars, (London, 1986)

----- `German Jacobins and the French Revolution', HJ, 23, (1980)

K. Brauer/W. Wright (eds.) Austria in the age of the French Revolution, (Minneapolis, 1991)

CEH 22/2 (1989) special issue: `The French Revolution in Germany and Austria'

O. Connelly Napoleon's satellite kingdoms, (London, 1965)

G.A. Craig The politics of the Prussian army 1640-1945, (Oxford, 1966)

G.A. Craig `Engagement and neutrality in Germany: The case of Georg Forster', JMH, 41, (1969), 1-16 on a German Jacobin

F. Crouzet `Wars, blockades and economic change in Europe 1792-1815', JEcH, 24, (1964), 567-88

J.M. Diefendorf Businessmen and politics in the Rhineland 1789-1834, (Princeton, 1980)

K. Epstein `Stein in German historiography', HJ, 5, (1966)

F.G. Eyck Loyal rebels: Andreas Hofer and the Tyrolean uprising of 1809, (Lanham Md., 1986)

J.G. Fichte Addresses to the German Nation, (1807-8), ed. G.A. Kelly)

H.A.L. Fischer Studies in Napoleonic statesmanship: Germany, (Oxford, 1903)

F.L. Ford `The revolutionary Napoleonic era: How much of a watershed?' AHR, 69, (1963/4) 18-29

G.S. Ford Stein and the era of reform in Prussia

G.P. Gooch Germany and the French Revolution (London, 1920) dated

M.W. Gray Prussia in transition: society and potliics under the stein reform ministry

D. Kaiser Politics and war, (London, 1990), pp.212-70 provides a useful survey of the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars

H. Kohn Prelude to nation states: the French and German experience, 1789-1815

----- `The eve of German nationalism', J. of the History of Ideas, 12, (1951)

----- `Romanticism and the rise of German nationalism', Review of Politics, 12, (1950)

----- `The paradox of Fichte's nationalism', J. Hist. Ideas, 10, (1949)

----- `Father Jahn's nationalism', Review of Politics, 11, (1949)

----- `Napoleon and the age of nationalism', JMH, 22, (1950)

----- `Arndt and the character of German nationalism', AHR, 59, (1953-4)

W.C. Langsam `Count Stadion and the Archduke Charles', J. Cent. Euro. Affairs, 6, (1946), on Austrian policy

H.T. Mason/W. Doyle (eds.) The impact of the French revolution on European consciousness, (1989)

C.A. MaCartney The Habsburg Empire 1790-1918, (New York/ London, 1968)

F. Meinecke The age of German liberation 1795-1815, (Berkeley, 1977)

R.R. Palmer The world of the French Revolution, (1971)

P. Paret Yorck and the era of Prussian reform 1807-1815, (Princeton, 1966)

H.S. Reiss (ed.) The political thought of the German romantics, 1793-1815

K.A. Roider Baron Thugut and Austria's response to the French Revolution, (Princeton, 1987)

P.W. Schroder `The collapse of the second coalition', JMH, 59, (1987), 244-90 good for Austrian policy

H. Schulze The course of German nationalism from Frederick the Great to Bismarck, 1763-1867, (Cambridge)

W.O. Shanahan `A neglected source of German nationalism: the Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1813', in M. Palumbo/W.O. Shanahan (eds.) Nationalism

D. Showalter `Manifestations of reform: the rearmament of the Prussian infantry 1806-1813', JMH, 44, (1972)

J.J. Sheehan `State and nationality in the Napoleonic period', in J. Breuilly (ed.), The state of Germany, (Harlow, 1992), 47-59

W.W. Simon The failure of the Prussian reform movement 1807-1819, (Ithaca 1955)

----- `Variations in nationalism during the Great Reform period in Prussia', AHR, 59, (1953/4), 305-21

F. Wangermann From Joseph II to the Jacobin trials, (2nd e., London, 1969)

K.H. Wegert `Patrimonial rule, popular self-interest and Jacobinism in Germany 1763-1800', JMH, 53, (1981), 440-67

Documents in German History Project: War and Society in Eighteenth-Century Germany