- Monsieur Beaucaire
- Philippe Molyneux
- Frederick Bantison
- The Duke of Winterset
- Beau Nash
- Captain Badger
- The Marquis de Mirepox
- Lady Mary Carlisle
- Countess of Greensbury
The musical is set in Bath in the early 18th Century, opening with a song by the servants of the French Ambassador (No. 1 - Opening Chorus). Monsieur Beaucaire, apparently a barber in the service of the French Ambassador, is, in reality, the Duc d'Orleans, the son of the King of France, a fact only known to his valet and his friend, Molyneux. He has just been forcibly ejected from the pump rooms for pretending to be a gentleman. He is in love with Lady Mary Carlisle, who is herself courted by the Duke of Winterset (No. 2 - 'Red Rose'). A number of gentlemen arrive at Beaucaire's house to play cards, losing most of their money to him. In the second round, Beaucaire plays Winterset for high stakes. At the climax of the hand, Beaucaire exposes Winterset as a cheat. When Winterset goes to kill his opponent, Beaucaire reveals that they are observed by his servants and the noble Molyneux. As the price of Beaucaire's silence, Winterset takes him to Lady Rellerton's ball to introduce him to Lady Mary (No. 3 - 'Going to the Ball').
The scene changes to the ball at Lady Rellerton's (No. 4 - 'The Beaux and Belles of Bath'). Molyneux is in love with Lady Mary's cousin Lucy and wishes to woo her 'A Little More' (No. 5). Lady Mary enters (No. 6 - 'Come with Welcome'), followed shortly by Winterset and Beaucaire. Beaucaire charms the company, and Lady Mary asks to be left alone with him. He begs the rose in her hair. She says that he must earn it by escorting the aged Countess of Greenbury to supper (No. 7 - 'Lightly, Lightly').
To obtain revenge, Winterset persuades Captain Badger, a famous swordsman, to quarrel with Beaucaire (No. 8 - 'No Offence'), who challenges him to a duel. They fight on the terrace and, to everyone's surprise, it is Beaucaire who is victorious. He takes the old Countess into supper and receives his rose from Lady Mary (No. 9 - Finale Act I)
Act 2 is set at a 'Pastoral Fete' (No. 10) at Mr Bantison's house outside Bath. Lady Mary is still smitten with Monsieur Beaucaire, although Richard 'Beau' Nash is convinced that he would have been a rival fifteen years ago (No. 11 - 'When I Was King of Bath').
Lucy gives a lesson in wooing to two of Mary's unhappy suitors (No. 12 - 'That's a Woman's Way'). Lady Mary sings the classic tale of 'Philomel' (No. 13).
Lucy finally gets Molyneux alone, and to get him to promise to hers alone for the evening, when he is summoned away by Beaucaire. Lucy accuses him of going to another woman. He defends his 'Honour and Love' (No. 14) before leaving.
The summons is a trick of Winterset. Once Molyneux has gone, he exposes Beaucaire's disguise. Townbrake and the other men swear revenge on the impostor, who is currently wooing Lady Mary (No. 15 - 'Say no more'). One by one the men attack and are all wounded. An assault by the massed servants of his opponents threatens to defeat Beaucaire when Francois and his fellow servants join in the battle and repulse the attackers. Winterset then denounces Beaucaire as the barber who was thrown out of the pump room (No. 16 - Finale Act II). Beaucaire curtly admits this, making Lady Mary storm off. The reason for his reticence is then revealed: Beaucaire is seriously wounded.
A week passes. It has been announced that the French Ambassador will attend the pump room that evening (No. 17 - 'The Ambassador'), and Beau Nash has placed guards to prevent Beaucaire from attending. His previously defeated opponents sing of how they bear 'The Honours of War' (No. 19).
Molyneux is still having trouble with Lucy (No. 20 - 'We Are Not Speaking Now'), but manages to convince her to arrange a secret meeting between Mary and Beaucaire. Beaucaire explains the situation to her, and asks if the identity of a lover truly matters? (No. 21 - 'Under the Moon'). Lady Mary agrees - for 'What are Names?' (No. 22).
Winterset and his followers now make a dramatic entrance, but before anything can happen, the entrance of the Ambassador is announced (No. 23 - 'Way for the Ambassador'). Everyone is amazed when the Ambassador enters and kneels to the presumed barber, hailing him 'A Son of France' (No. 24). The King of France is dead, and, out of danger, Beaucaire reveals himself as the Duke of Orleans and announces that Mary will be his future Duchess. There is general rejoicing (No. 25 - Finale Act III).
The bonus song (No. 26 - 'Gold and Blue and White') was originally sung by Beaucaire in place of 'Philomel'.